Liturgy, Books and Franciscan Identity in Medieval Umbria


In Liturgy, Books and Franciscan Identity in Medieval Umbria, Anna Welch explores how Franciscan friars engaged with manuscript production networks operating in Umbria in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries to produce the missals essential to their liturgical lives. A micro-history of Franciscan liturgical activity, this study reassesses methodologies pertinent to manuscript studies and reflects on both the construction of communal identity through ritual activity and historiographic trends regarding this process.
Welch focuses on manuscripts decorated by the ateliers of the Maestro di Deruta-Salerno (active c. 1280) and Maestro Venturella di Pietro (active c. 1317), in particular the Codex Sancti Paschalis, a missal now owned by the Australian Province of the Order of Friars Minor.
Restricted Access


EUR €112.00USD $149.00

Biographical Note

Anna Welch, Ph.D. (2011), University of Divinity, works in the History of the Book Collection at the State Library Victoria (Melbourne, Australia). Her research interests include Franciscan history and spirituality, book history, and the relationship between ritual and identity in medieval Christian communities.

Table of contents

Acknowledgements ix
List of Plates xi
Abbreviations xii
Introduction 1
The Codex Sancti Paschalis 6
Limitations, Terms and Definitions 16
1 The Silent Parchment? A New Methodology for the Study of Missals 20
1.1 The Historiography of Illuminated Liturgical Manuscripts 20
1.2 Art History and the Codex Sancti Paschalis 23
Maestro di Deruta-Salerno 32
Venturella di Pietro 33
Mss. Linked to the CSP and/or Mss. Listed above, Without
Specific Attribution to a Master/School 34
1.3 Selection Rationale for the Missals under Study 35
1.4 Towards a New Model for Manuscript Studies: Liturgical
History Meets Ritual and Performance Theory 40
2 Quarrelling Brothers – Liturgy and Identity, 1209–1274 51
2.1 The Narrative of Franciscan Liturgical History 51
2.2 Franciscan Liturgy: The Regula Editions? 54
2.2.1 The Regula Missal 55
2.2.2 The Regula Breviary 66
2.3 Elias of Cortona to Haymo of Faversham: The Concept of a
Second Founder 71
2.3.1 Haymo’s Ordinal 76
2.3.2 The Question of Liturgical Unity 78
2.4 John of Parma to Bonaventure: The Difficulties of Achieving
Liturgical Unity 79
2.5 The Friars Minor, Liturgy and Identity in the Thirteenth Century 87
3 The Order of Friars Minor and the Book 92
3.1 The Scribes 92
3.2 The Miniaturists 100
3.2.1 Friar-Miniaturists in a Scriptorium in Assisi? 102
3.2.2 Scholarly Conceptualisation of a Simplistic Franciscan Decorative
Style and Its Meaning 106
3.3 ‘Pauperistico’? Franciscan Spirituality in Perugian Miniatures 116
3.3.1 Crucifixion Miniatures from the Selected Missals 117
3.4 Conclusions 131
4 Calendars – Comparing the Evidence 133
4.1 The Historiography and Methodology of Studying Sainthood,
Liturgical Calendars and the Commemoration of Saints 134
4.2 Short Catalogue Entries for CSP and B–E: Codicology
and Provenance 138
4.3 The Calendars Compared 148
Key to Symbols and Abbreviations 149
4.4 Conclusions 174
5 Celebrating Saints – Articulating Communal Identity through
Liturgy 175
5.1 Selection of Feasts for Analysis; Methodology 175
5.2 The Feasts in CSP and B–E 178
5.2.1 Feasts of St. Francis 178
5.2.2 Feasts of St. Anthony of Padua 181
5.2.3 Feasts of St. Clare 183
5.2.4 Feast of Elisabeth of Hungary 185
5.2.5 Feast of St. Louis of Toulouse 185
5.2.6 Feast of St. Louis ix, King of France 186
5.2.7 Feasts of St. Herculanus, Bishop of Perugia 188
5.2.8 Feast of Ubaldo, Patron Saint of Gubbio 188
5.2.9 Feast of St. Dominic 189
5.2.10 Feast of St. Peter Martyr (of Verona) 189
5.2.11 Feast of Augustine of Hippo 190
5.2.12 Feast of St. Bernard of Clairvaux 190
5.2.13 Feasts of the Virgin 190
5.3 Categories of Interpretation 194
5.3.1 Rubrication 194
5.3.2 Wording of the Entries 195
5.3.3 Inclusion/Exclusion of Localised Feasts in a) Calendar and
b) Proper of the Saints 196
5.3.4 Inclusion/Exclusion of Feasts from Other Orders (i.e.
Dominicans and Cistercians) 198
5.3.5 Relationship to Roman Curia’s Calendar 200
5.3.6 Additions and Absences 201
5.3.7 Adherence to Haymo’s Ordinal 202
Conclusions and Directions for Future Research
The Codex Sancti Paschalis from the Thirteenth to the
Twenty-First Centuries 204
Liturgy’s Role in the Construction of Communal Identity amongst the
Medieval Order of Friars Minor 204
Questions for Future Research 214
The Codex Sancti Paschalis as a Site of Communal Memory 216
Appendix 1 Previous Studies of the Codex Sancti Paschalis 219
Appendix 2 Liturgical Contents of the Codex Sancti Paschalis 224
Bibliography 247
1. Primary 247
1.1 Manuscripts Consulted 248
2. Secondary 249
Index of Modern Authors 265
Index of Subjects 267


Specialist and student researchers interested in Franciscan history, Franciscan spirituality, medieval liturgical history, manuscript studies, intellectual history, ritual studies and the intersections between these fields.

Index Card

Collection Information