Mediterranean Paradiplomacies

The Dynamics of Diplomatic Reterritorialization


In Mediterranean Paradiplomacies: The Dynamics of Diplomatic Reterritorialization, Manuel Duran presents a new view on the phenomenon of paradiplomacy by analyzing the diplomatic activities of a number of Mediterranean substate entities as a site of political territorialization. The international agency of these substate entities is giving way to new patterns of territorialization, as well as alternative forms of diplomacy. Duran examines the diplomatic activities of two Spanish, two French and two Italian regions. The book poses the question of why and how these regions operate diplomatically in a given territorial milieu and convincingly elucidates the particular patterns of reterritorialization that result from these diplomatic activities.
Restricted Access


EUR €152.00USD $197.00

Biographical Note

Manuel Duran, Ph.D. (2014), University of Antwerp, is a scientific attaché at the Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and of Military History in Brussels. He has published articles on diplomacy and military history, including French regions as diplomatic actors: The case of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (French Politics, 2011).

Table of contents

Chapter One: Introduction 1.1. The Case of Mediterranean Paradiplomacy and its Broader Relevance 1.2. Problem Statement and Main Questions 1.3. Ontological Perspectives, Methodology and Case Selection 1.3.1. Ontological Perspectives 1.3.2. Methodology 1.3.3. Case Selection 1.4. The Book’s Structure Chapter Two: Conceptualizations of Paradiplomacy 2.1. An Archaeology of Paradiplomacy 2.1.1. The Term “Paradiplomacy” 2.1.2. The False Embassy and the Ambassador of God 2.1.3. Christian Diplomacy and Diplomacy of the Church 2.1.4. Hybrids and Corsairs 2.1.5. Diasporas and Cities 2.2. Contemporary Paradiplomacy 2.2.1. Territory, Deterritorialization and Reterritorialization 2.2.2. The Level of Analysis within IR 2.2.3. Reterritorializing Diplomacy 2.2.4. Mediterranean Substate Entities 2.2.5 Substate Diplomacy or Paradiplomacy Concluding Remarks Chapter Three: Diplomacy between Self, Other and Same 3.1. Explanandum (1): Paradiplomacy 3.2. Explanans (1): Ecological Triad 3.2.1. Operational Milieu 3.2.2. Psychological Milieu 3.3. Explanandum (2): Patterns of Reterritorialization 3.4. Explanans (2): The Practice of Paradiplomacy 3.5. Coda: Explaining the Explananda Chapter Four: The Mediterranean as a Space of Thought, Encounters and Diplomacy 4.1. Mediterranean Thinking 4.2. Mediterranean Encounters 4.3. Mediterranean Diplomacy 4.3.1. The Mediterranean Diplomacies of France, Italy and Spain 4.3.2. The European Union as a Diplomatic Actor in the Mediterranean 4.4. Conclusion Chapter Five: The Mediterranean Substate Entities 5.1. Italy 5.1.1. Paradiplomacy all’italiana 5.1.2. The Region of Emilia-Romagna 5.1.3. The Region of Puglia 5.1.4. Conclusion: The Geopolitical DNA for Italian Regions 5.2. France 5.2.1. The French Institutional Context: The Millefeuille institutionnel français 5.2.2. The Region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur 5.2.3. The Region of Languedoc-Roussillon 5.2.4. Conclusion: The Geopolitical DNA for French Regions 5.3. Spain 5.3.1. Spanish Devolution 5.3.2. The Historic Nation of Catalonia 5.3.3. The Autonomous Community of Andalusia 5.3.4. Conclusion: The Geopolitical DNA for Spanish Autonomous Communities 5.4. Conclusion Chapter Six: Diplomatic Representation 6.1. Conceptualizing Representation 6.2. Formalistic Representation 6.3. Substantive Representation 6.3.1. EU Representation 6.3.2. Political Representation: Mimicking the State 6.3.3. Economic Diplomacy: The Network of Commercial Representation 6.3.4. Other Forms of Representation: Cultural Houses, Tourism Offices and Diasporas 6.4. The Diplomatic Audience 6.5. Symbolic Representation 6.6. Conclusion: Reterritorializing Representation Chapter Seven: Paradiplomacy as Communication 7.1. Diplomacy as Communication 7.2. Language 7.3. Presenting the Diplomatic Self 7.3.1. Images: Cartographic Maps 7.3.2. Words: Mental Maps, Discursive Traces of Geopolitical Goals 7.4. Public and Cultural Diplomacy 7.5. Conclusion: Reterritorializing Diplomatic Communication Chapter Eight: Substate Diplomatic Socialization: Dealing with the Other 8.1. The Nearby Other: The Central Government and the Co-regions 8.2. The European Other: Dealing with the EU Level and the Other Europeans 8.2.1. The Committee of the Regions 8.2.2. European Territorial Cooperation 8.3. The International Other: Dealing with the Mediterranean 8.3.1. Getting Connected: Organizations and Networks 8.3.2. Multi-stakeholder Diplomacy: Decentralized Development Cooperation 8.3.3. Bilateral and Multilateral Relations 8.4. Conclusion: New Layers of Diplomatic Relations – Socializing Paradiplomacy Chapter Nine: Patterns of Reterritorialization 9.1. New Mediterranean Geographies, Renewed Identities 9.1.1. From the Center: The Various Euro-Mediterranean Partnerships 9.1.2. From the Periphery, Within the Mediterranean 9.2. Mimicry: Defying the State Monopoly on Diplomacy 9.3. Division of Labor: The Lower Profile of the State (Collaboration) 9.3.1. Collaboration with the State 9.3.2. Barcelona or Marseille: Capital(s) of the Mediterranean 9.4. Homo-diplomacy: The Human Face of Paradiplomacy 9.5. Conclusion: Reterritorialization from Antagonism to Agonism and Humanism Chapter 10: General Conclusions 10.1. The Westphalian Myth: The Territorial Trap 10.2. Diplomatic Actorness 10.3. The Geopolitical DNA of Mediterranean Substate Entities 10.4. Multilevel and Multifaceted Diplomacy (Engaging with the Others) 10.5. Thoughts on Methodology 10.6. Sites for Future Research


All interested in the theory and practice of (sub-state) diplomacy and the politics of Mediterranean regional political entities, and anyone concerned with geopolitical analysis.