Maritime Security Cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea

Prospects and Challenges

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In Maritime Security Cooperation in the Guinea: Prospects and Challenges, Kamal-Deen Ali provides ground-breaking analyses of the maritime security situation in the Gulf of Guinea and its implications for shipping, energy security, sustainable fisheries as well as national and regional security. The book juxtaposes the growing strategic importance of the Gulf of Guinea against the rising insecurity in the maritime domain, especially from piracy. Ali points out key gaps in prevailing regional and international approaches to maritime security cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea and sets out several suggestions for combating piracy as well as other maritime security threats while effectively enhancing maritime security cooperation in the region.
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Biographical Note

Kamal-Deen Ali, Ph.D (2014), University of Wollongong, Australia, is the Director of Research at the Ghana Armed Forces Command and Staff College. He has published significantly including The Anatomy of Gulf of Guinea Piracy (Naval War College Review, 2015).

Table of contents

PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF ACRONYMS
TABLES AND FIGURES
CHAPTER ONE
A COMPLEX CASE OF MARITIME INSECURITY
1.1 A STRATEGIC MARITIME PROFILE
1.2 A RISING-COMPLEX PIRACY
1.3 CRUCIBLE OF INSECURITY
1.4 PARADOX OF OPPORTUNITY AND CHALLENGES
1.5 INTERROGATING PREVAILING RESPONSES
1.6 IN SEARCH OF COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH
1.7 SCOPE OF THE BOOK AND CHAPTER OUTLINE
PART I PROFILE AND STRATEGIC CONTEXT
CHAPTER TWO
DEFINITION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE GULF OF GUINEA
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 DEFINING THE GULF OF GUINEA REGION
2.2.1 The Gulf of Guinea in Academic Literature
2.2.2 Institutional Conceptions of the Gulf of Guinea
2.2.3 Evolving Global Concept of the Gulf of Guinea
2.2.4 Author’s Working Definition of the Gulf of Guinea
2.2.5 Regional Organisations of the Gulf of Guinea
2.3 SUMMARY OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND MARITIME PROFILE OF THE GULF OF GUINEA
2.4 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER THREE
THE SEA AS THE GEOSTRATEGIC ESSENCE OF THE GULF OF GUINEA: A HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY OVERVIEW 29
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 A GEOPOLTICAL HISTORY FROM THE OCEAN
3.2.1 Gulf of Guinea and the birth of Mare Liberum Doctrine
3.2.2 Gulf Guinea and the Industrial Revolution
3.2.3 The Gulf of Guinea as the Epoch of Seapower and Maritime Power Concepts
3.3 A GEOSTRATEGIC FUTURE IN THE SEA
3.3.1 International Trade and Shipping
3.3.1.1 Export Trade
3.3.1.2 Import Trade
3.3.1.3 Transit Trade of Landlocked States
3.3.2 The Gulf of Guinea and Global Energy Security
3.3.2.1 Gulf of Guinea Oil and Gas Reserves
3.3.2.2 Comparative Advantages of Gulf of Guinea Oil and Gas Reserves 47
3.3.2.3 United States Oil and Gas Interest in the Gulf of Guinea
3.3.2.4 Oil and Gas Interest of the European Union in the Gulf of Guinea
3.3.2.5 China’s Energy Activities in the Gulf of Guinea
3.3.2.6 Oil Power, Governance and Maritime Security
3.3.3 Gulf of Guinea Marine Living Resources
3.3.3.1 Socio-economic Importance of Fisheries
3.3.3.2 External Interest in Gulf of Guinea Fisheries
3.3.4 Submarine Cables and Pipelines
3.4 CONCLUSION
PART II MARITIME SECURITY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
CHAPTER FOUR
CONCEPTUALIZATION OF MARITIME SECURITY AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONCEPT OF SECURITY AND MARITIME SECURITY
4.2.1 A State-Centric Approach to the Concept of Security
4.2.2 Broader Concept of Security
4.2.3 Traditional versus Restated Concepts of Security and the Definition of Key Terms – ‘threats’ and ‘challenges’
4.2.4 Embedded Elements in the Concept of Security
4.2.5 Concept of Security Cooperation
4.2.6 Relating the Concept of Security to Maritime Security
4.3 CONCEPT OF MARITIME SECURITY
4.3.1 The Concept of Security in Maritime Security Literature
4.3.2 Definitions and Approaches to the Concept of Maritime Security
4.3.3 Evolution of the Concept of Maritime Security
4.3.2.1 Maritime Transportation Security
4.3.2.2 Mare Clausum and National Security Interests
4.3.2.3 Offshore Energy Security
4.3.2.4 The Exclusive Economic Zone and Further Dimensions of Maritime Security
4.3.2.5 Naval Constabulary Roles and the Construction of Maritime Security
4.3.2.6 Post-9/11 Maritime Security
4.3.2.7 The 2008 Oceans and the Law of Sea Report and the Harmonisation of Maritime Security
4.4 AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MARITIME SECURITY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
4.4.1 Gulf of Guinea Maritime Security Threat Path
4.4.2 Thematic Concerns of Gulf of Guinea Maritime Security
4.5 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FIVE
OVERVIEW OF MARITIME SECURITY CHALLENGES IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 PIRACY AND ARMED ROBBERY AT SEA
5.3 ILLICIT DRUG TRAFFICKING IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
5.3.1 Drug Vessels and Transhipment at Sea
5.3.2 Cocaine in Shipping Containers
5.3.3 Implications of Drug Trafficking For National and Regional Security
5.4 ILLEGAL MIGRATION BY SEA
5.6 ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN WEAPONS
5.5 DECLINING FISHERIES AS A MARITIME SECURITY THREAT
5.5.1 Scale and Cost of IUU Fishing in the Gulf of Guinea
5.5.2 Clarification the Concept of IUU Fishing and Its Limitations as an Instrument for Fisheries Management.
5.5.3 The Need for a Broader Approach and the Governance Dimension to IUU Fishing
5.5.4 Implications of Declining Fisheries in the Gulf of Guinea
5.7 OFFSHORE ENERGY SECURITY CONCERNS AND CHALLENGES
5.7.1 The Nature of Offshore Oil and Gas Infrastructure
5.7.2 Safety and Security Concerns of Offshore Infrastructure
5.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER SIX
A CASE STUDY OF PIRACY AND ARMED ROBBERY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6. 2 LEGAL, CONCEPTUAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF PIRACY AND ARMED ROBBERY AGAINST SHIPS
6.2.1 Nature, Definition and Jurisdiction over Piracy
6.2.1.1 A Crime of Universal Jurisdiction
6.2.1.2 Acts of Violence, Detention, Depredation and Facilitation
6.2.1.3 Committed on the High Seas
6.2.1.4 Private Ship or Aircraft against Private Ship or Aircraft 147
6.2.1.5 Committed for Private Ends
6.2.2 Armed Robbery at Sea-Nature, Definition and Jurisdiction
6.2.3 Implications of the Somali Experience for the Future Development of the Law on Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea
6.2.4 Institutional Approaches to Piratical Incidents
6.2.4.1 International Maritime Organization
6.2.4.2 International Maritime Bureau
6.3 OVERVIEW AND DISTRIBUTION OF GULF OF GUINEA PIRACY AND ARMED ROBBERY INCIDENTS
6.3.1 Piracy Statistics in the Gulf of Guinea
6.3.2 Piracy Hot Spots and Enclaves
6.4 THE PARADIGM OF GULF OF GUINEA PIRACY
6.4.1 The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta
6.4.2 Rising Threat and the Amnesty Pact
6.4.3 An Insurgency, Criminality, Piracy, and Security Complex
6.5 EVOLUTION OF THE NIGER DELTA INSURGENT INTO A REGIONAL MARITIME SECURITY THREAT
6.5.1 Opportunistic Sea Robbery
6.5.2 Widening the Enclave: Prodding and Surges
6.5.3 Pursuit and Violence
6.5.4 Full-Scale Insurgent-Piracy
6.5.5 Regional Threat and Piracy Networks: The Benin case
6.5.6 Togo in the Claws: Post–Operation Prosperity
6.5.7 Cote d’Ivoire under Siege: Nowhere Is Safe
6.6 EMERGENT PROFILE AND FUTURE PROJECTION
6.6.1 Widening of the Niger Delta Factor
6.6.2 Other Piratical Groups within the Primary Piracy Enclave
6.6.3 Concerns in the Secondary Piracy Enclave
6.6.4 Threats beyond Piracy
6.7 IMPLICATIONS OF GULF OF GUINEA PIRACY FOR REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY
6.7.1 Transportation Security
6.7.2 Global Trade and Economy
6.7.3 The Energy Security Dimension
6.7.4 Economic and Food Security of Gulf of Guinea States
6.7.5 Regional and National Security
6.8 SITUATING GULF OF GUINEA PIRACY WITHIN CONTEMPORARY PIRACY THEORIES AND PROVIDING FOR THE GOVERNANCE DIMENSION
6.8.1 Piracy as a Social Problem
6.8.2 Piracy as a Symptom of Failed States
6.8.3 Business Model of Piracy
6.8.4 The Piracy Cycle
6.8.5 The Governance Factor in Gulf of Guinea Piracy
6.9 CONCLUSION
PART III
ASSESSMENT OF RESPONSES AND COOPERATIVE INITIATIVES
CHAPTER SEVEN
ASSESSMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND EMERGING LEGAL COMPLEXITIES
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
7.2.2 Overview of the Framework of the Law of the Sea Convention
7.2.2.1 Territorial Sea and the Protection of Sovereignty and Security Interests
7.2.2.2 Policing and Enforcement Rights in the Contiguous Zone
7.2.2.3 Resource and Security Interests in the Exclusive Economic Zone and on the Continental Shelf
7.2.2.4 Enforcement Jurisdiction on the High Seas
7.2.2.5 Framework for Maritime Boundary Delimitation
7.2.3 Assessment of the Implementation of UNCLOS in the Gulf of Guinea
7.2.3.1 Status of Ratification of the Law of the Sea Convention and the Exercise of Appropriate Jurisdiction
7.2.3.2 Implementation of Framework on Piracy
7.2.3.3 State of Maritime Boundary Delimitation in the Gulf of Guinea in the impact on security and jurisdiction
7.2.3.4 Implications of Maritime Boundaries for Peace and Security in the Gulf of Guinea
7.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL ACTS AGAINST SAFETY OF NAVIGATION AND FIXED PLATFORMS
7.3.1 Background to the SUA Framework
7.3.2 Overview of the SUA Framework for Maritime Security
7.3.2.1 1988 SUA Convention
7.3.2.2 1988 SUA Protocol
7.3.2.3 The 2005 SUA Protocols
7.3.3 Assessment of Implementation of the SUA Framework to the Gulf of Guinea
7.4 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT DRUG TRAFFICKING IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
7.4.1 Background to the United Nations Convention against Drug Trafficking
7.4.2 Framework of the UN Drug Convention
7.4.3 Assessment of Implementation of Counter-Narcotics Reponses in the Gulf of Guinea
7.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIMES
7.5.1 Background to United Nations Transnational Organized Crime Convention
7.5.2 Scope and Content of Transnational Organized Crime Instruments
7.5.3 Implementation of TOC Instruments in the Gulf of Guinea
7.5.3.1 Implementation of Protocols on Illegal Migration
7.5.3.2 Implementation of the Protocol against Illicit Weapon Trafficking
7.6 IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR FISHERIES GOVERNANCE IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
7.6.1 Binding Fisheries Governance Frameworks
7.6.1.1 UNCLOS Framework on Fisheries Governance
7.6.1.2 FAO Compliance Agreement
7.6.1.3 United Nations Fish Stock Agreement
7.6.1.4 FAO Port State Measures Agreement
7.6.2 Non-binding Fisheries Governance Frameworks
7.6.2.1 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
7.6.2.2 International Plan of Action against Illegal and Unreported Unregulated Fishing
7.6.3 Assessment of the Implementation of Fisheries Governance Frameworks by Gulf of Guinea States
7.6.3.1 Ratification of Binding Instruments
7.6.3.2 Implementation of the IPOA-IUU
7.6.3.3 Implementation of Port State Measures
7.7 EMERGING JURISDICTIONAL COMPLEXITIES IN GULF OF GUINEA PIRACY
7.7 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER EIGHT
PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF REGIONAL COOPERATIVE INITIATIVES
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 COOPERATIVE PLATFORMS AND EVOLVING INITIATIVES
8.2.1 The Maritime Organization for West and Central Africa and the Integrated Coastguard Network Project
8.2.2 The Gulf of Guinea Commission
8.2.3 Maritime Security Initiatives of the Economic Community of West African States
8.2.4 Maritime Security Framework of the Economic Community of Central African States
8.3 STRUCTURAL CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS
8.3.1 Political and Institutional Authority
8.3.2 Jurisdictional and Sovereignty Issues
8.3.3 Multiplicity of Approaches and Deepening Uncertainty
8.3.4 Limited Capability and Funding
8.3.5 Inadequate Enforcement Framework and Interoperability Issues
8.3.6 Lack of Comprehensiveness
8.3.7 Maritime Boundaries Disputes
8.4 GEOPOLITICAL CHALLENGES
8.4.1 Nemesis of the Gulf of Guinea Commission
8.4.2 ECCAS –Tensions and the Test Ahead
8.4.3 ECOWAS Region - Old Troubles in a New Phase
8.4.4 “New Security” and the Demands of New Relations
8.4.5 The Mauritania Factor
8.5 LAND-SEA NEXUS AND MARITIME SECURITY
8.5.1 Instability, Political Leadership and Insecurity
8.5.2 Institutional Effectiveness and Coordination
8.5.3 Corruption and Lack of Transparency
8.5.4 Governance of Offshore Resources
8.5.5 Security Governance, Culture and Reform
8.6 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER NINE
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND THE DYNAMICS OF MARITIME SECURITY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 UNITED STATES AND MARITIME SECURITY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
9.2.1 United States Maritime Security Policy Framework
9.2.2 Birth of the United States African Command
9.2.3 The African Partnership Station
9.2.4 Role of the United States in Promoting Maritime Security Cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea
9.2.5 United States Logistics Support and Capacity Building
9.3 FRANCE AND MARITIME SECURITY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
9.3.1 France’s Strategic and Maritime Security Interest in the Gulf of Guinea
9.3.2 France’s Framework for Maritime Security Cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea
9.4 UNITED KINGDOM AND GULF OF GUINEA MARITIME SECURITY
9.4.1 A Maritime Nation with a Maritime Interest
9.4.2 United Kingdom Cooperative Maritime Strategy for the Gulf of Guinea
9.5 THE EUROPEAN UNION AND GULF OF GUINEA MARITIME SECURITY
9.5.1 Maritime Interest of the European Union in the Gulf of Guinea
9.5.2 EU Maritime Security Cooperative Framework in the Gulf of Guinea
9.6 CHINA AND GULF OF GUINEA MARITIME SECURITY
9.6.1 China’s Maritime Security Interest in the Gulf of Guinea.
9.6.2 China’s Opportunities and Challenges in Participating in Gulf of Guinea Cooperative Frameworks
9.7 CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL CONTRIBUTION TO MARITIME SECURITY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
9.7.1 Multiplicity and Coordination
9.7.2 Cooperation, Compromise or Competition?
9.7.3 In Search of Inclusive Maritime Security
9.7.4 Inadequate Logistics and Financial Support
9.7.5 Two Contrasting Global Responses – Gulf of Guinea vrs Indian Ocean
9.7.6 Ownership versus Privatisation of Security
9.7.7 The Overlaps of Sovereignty, Governance and Responsibility
9.7.8 Inadequate Legal Framework
9.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER TEN
ENHANCING MARITIME SECURITY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
THREATS, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR MARITIME SECURITY IN THE GULF OF GUINEA
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Readership

All interested in understanding the dynamics of maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea and anyone concerned with enhancing maritime security and cooperatives responses in the Gulf of Guinea.

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