Recueil des cours, Collected Courses, Tome/Volume 372


La compétence universelle civile, par A. Bucher, professeur honoraire de l’Université de Genève:
La compétence universelle a préoccupé la communauté internationale surtout sous l’angle de la répression pénale. Le droit international n’a guère développé le soutien politique et l’arsenal juridique servant à la protection directe et individuelle des victimes de graves atteintes à leur dignité humaine. On a dit que celles-ci ne disposeraient pas d’un droit de réparation à faire valoir à l’encontre de l’Etat responsable. Ces temps ont changé. En sus de l’indemnisation, les victimes doivent avoir la garantie d’un accès effectif à la justice. C’est une obligation erga omnes à la charge et dans l’intérêt de tous les Etats. Ceux-ci doivent donc assurer qu’il existe un tribunal compétent tout au moins en dernier recours. Si les tribunaux ne peuvent être saisis selon les règles ordinaires, le principe de la compétence universelle oblige tout Etat à accepter l’accès des victimes de telles graves violations des droits de l’homme, quitte à se déclarer compétent à titre subsidiaire seulement s’il existe un for plus approprié et accessible ailleurs.

Limitations on Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration by G. Cordero-Moss, Professor at the University of Oslo:
International commercial contracts often contain a choice of law clause and an arbitration clause. The parties are often convinced that the choice of law clause in the contract excludes that any other country’s law is applicable to any aspect of their relationship; even more so when the contract contains an arbitration clause. Arbitration is, as known, based on the will of the parties, and the tribunal is supposed to follow the parties’ instructions. Hence, a contract with an arbitration clause apparently enhances the parties’ reliance on the choice of law they made in the contract and the disregard of any other laws.
Choice of law clauses are, however, not always capable of fully achieving the results desired by the parties. There are several limits to the effects of these clauses. These limits may depend on the scope of party autonomy, on overriding mandatory rules of other laws or on illegality in the place of performance.
The course intends to show that an arbitration clause does not necessarily prevent the applicability of rules belonging to a law different from the one chosen by the parties: some of these rules cannot be disregarded even by an international arbitral tribunal and, if they are, the award will be invalid or unenforceable.

Intellectual Property: Cross-Border Recognition of Rights and National Development by M. Sinjela, Professor at the University of Lusaka:
Intellectual property is defined as the creation of the human mind, which becomes valuable when reduced into a tangible form. Many view intellectual property as a monopoly. Western countries have used it over the centuries as a tool for wealth creation, while developing countries have thus far not embraced it fully and are unsure of its pivotal role in wealth creation and national development.
To demonstrate the benefits that could accrue to developing countries that embrace intellectual property, the lectures firstly provide a succinct understanding of the entire subject including patents, trademarks, copyright, geographic indication of origin and the protection of new plant varieties. This is intended to give an understanding of the subject that is otherwise little known particularly in developing countries.
The lectures proceed to inform the reader how developing countries that use the intellectual property system could derive maximum benefits from it, just like countries in the west have over the centuries. The lectures are intended to provide a clear understanding of the vital role that intellectual property plays in wealth creation and national development for countries that embrace and mainstream it in their decision-making process and national development agenda.

International Co-operation in Energy Affairs by R. Dolzer, Professor at the University of Bonn (Retired):
These lectures explore the legal framework of current international cooperation in the various fields of energy by international organisations, together with the incentives and the impediments for stronger international action. While the opportunities for cooperation are obviously broad, the concept of natural sovereignty over natural resources dominates the current realities. The study also includes recommendations for possible ways to strengthen the current weak ties of cooperation.

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Andreas Bucher, né le 19 février 1946 à Zurich. Licencié en droit (1970, Université de Zurich), docteur en droit (1974, Université de Bâle), Brevet d’avocat (1981, Genève). Assistant à la faculté de droit de Zurich (1970-1971). Assistant, puis chargé de recherches à la faculté de droit de Genève (1971-1980). Chargé de cours aux facultés de droit de Genève (1979-1983), de Fribourg (1981-1983) et de Berne (1982-1983). Professeur invité à la faculté de droit de l’Université de Fribourg (1983-1987). Professeur ordinaire à la faculté de droit de l’Université de Genève (1983-2008), directeur du département de droit civil (1987-1993) et du Département de droit international privé (1993-1998, 2000-2008), président de la section de droit privé (1998-2000). Président du Sénat de l’Université de Genève (1995-2000). Depuis 2008, professeur honoraire de l’Université de Genève. Membre de la délégation suisse aux dix-septième, dix-huitième, dix-neuvième et vingtième sessions diplomatiques de la Conférence de La Haye de droit international privé (1993, 1996, 2001, 2005) ainsi que lors de la session de la Commission spéciale à caractère diplomatique sur la protection internationale des adultes (1999 ; viceprésident). Expert de la délégation suisse aux réunions de la Commission spéciale sur la compétence et les jugements étrangers en matière civile et commercial (1997-1999, 2003-2004) ; Président de la commission relative à la Convention sur les accords d’élection de for lors de la vingtième session diplomatique (juin 2005). Membre de la commission d’expert pour la codification du droit international privé suisse (1973-1978). Membre honoraire du Groupe européen de droit international privé. Membre de l’Institut de droit international. Giuditta Cordero-Moss, born on 7 December 1951, in Milan, Italy. Dr. juris (Oslo), PhD (Moscow), Professor at the Law Faculty of the University of Oslo, Director of the Department of Private Law. Teaches primarily International Commercial Law, International Commercial Arbitration and Private International Law, as well as Norwegian contract law and law of obligations. Originally Italian lawyer, started her career in the mid-1980s working with international commercial contracts as an in-house lawyer in multinational companies, first in the Italian Fiat S.p.A., then in the Norwegian Norsk Hydro ASA. Since joining academia at the end of the century, has been researching on the questions that she had met as an in-house lawyer and on those that she meets acting as a legal advisor within her fields of specialization and as an arbitrator. Has published numerous books and articles in Norway and internationally, and is often invited to lecture at universities and organizations in Norway and internationally. General editor of the principal Norwegian law review, Lov og Rett. Judge at the Administrative Tribunal, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (since 2007), delegate for Norway at the UNCITRAL Working Group on Arbitration (since 2007), member of the Commission on Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce, Paris (since 2003), member of the Norwegian National Committee, International Chamber of Commerce (since 2001), and is active in numerous academic associations, such as the International Academy of Comparative Law, the International Academy of Consumer and Commercial Law and the International Law Association. Vice-Chairman of the Board of the Financial Supervisory Authority of Norway (since 2014). Mpazi Sinjela, born on 5 January 1954, in Zambia. Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the University of Lusaka, Zambia, and concurrently Executive Dean of the School of Law of the same University. Areas of specialization include Intellectual Property, Public International Law, Human Rights and Constitutional Law. Served as Dean of the WIPO Worldwide Academy (World Intellectual Property Organization), Geneva, Switzerland (1998-2009). Served as visiting professor in intellectual property at the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights, University of Lund (Sweden); University of Torino (Italy); and Africa University (Zimbabwe). Prior to joining the World Intellectual Property Organization, served as senior Legal Officer, Codification Division, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations, New York. Served, inter alia, as Electoral Advisor and Legal Advisor to the United Nations peace-keeping missions in Namibia and Angola and Legal Advisor to the Economic Commission of Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Participated in the drafting of the constitutions in Namibia (1986) and Zambia (1910 and 2013). Regularly invited to present papers on various contemporary issues at the national, regional and international level. Has published scholarly works in various fields of law, including intellectual property, public international law and human rights. Founding Member and Editor of the African Yearbook of International Law and Managing Editor of the International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. Currently teaches intellectual property, human rights and supervises doctoral research in law at the University of Lusaka. Member of the Board of the Patents and Companies Registration Agency (PACRA), Zambia. Rudolf Dolzer, born on 20 March 1944, in Asang, Germany. Has specialized in legal issues of foreign investment for more than 30 years, with a focus on the law of oil and gas. Has published three books on this subject. In practice, he has been engaged in this field as advisor and, in arbitration disputes, as expert, counsel and arbitrator. Professor and Director of the Institute of International Law at the University of Bonn (1996-2009). Professor and Vice-President of the University of Mannheim (1989-1992). Prior to that he was Senior Research Fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute of International Law in Heidelberg where he was also elected to a Supervisory Board of the Max-Planck Society. Received two doctorates, one from the Heidelberg Law School (1971), the second from the Harvard Law School (1977). Has taught at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, the Cornell Law School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Yale Law School, the Dedman School of Law at the Southern Methodist University in Dallas, the Instituto de Empresa (Madrid), the City University of Hong Kong and the Sorbonne (Paris I). Director General of the Office of the Federal Chancellor in Bonn (1992-1996). In the German Parliament (Bundestag), was appointed three times as a Member of Commissions of Enquiry (between 1989 and 2002). Was a part-time journalist writing in the major German newspapers (1979-1992). Member of the Board of the International Development Law Institute in Rome (1998-2007). Member of the Steering Group of the German-Russian Forum on Raw Materials (since 2009). Awarded the Federal Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (2010).
La compétence universelle civile, par A. Bucher, professeur honoraire de l’Université de Genève: Excerpt of table of contents: Chapitre I. L’actualité du sujet Chapitre II. Des pratiques émergentes A. La jurisprudence B. Les entreprises Chapitre III. La nature de l’obligation de réparer le préjudice causé aux victimes A. L’Etat responsable de la réparation B. L’obligation de l’Etat de garantir le droit des victimes C. Le droit des victimes entre droit international et droit interne D. Le champ matériel de l’obligation de réparation E. Une obligation erga omnes Chapitre IV. Le droit d’accès à la justice A. La consécration en droit international B. La justice discrétionnaire des Etats C. La justice international D. La justice civile E. L’immunité de l’Etat Chapitre V. Les fors ordinaires A. Les fors du défendeur et du délit B. Le for de l’action pénale C. Les fors résiduels Chapitre VI. Le for fondé sur la compétence universelle A. La notion de compétence universelle B. Le for de nécessité C. Le for universel subsidiaire D. Compléments de procédure E. Conclusion Bibliographie. Limitations on Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration by G. Cordero-Moss, Professor at the University of Oslo: Excerpt of table of contents: Introduction. A closed circuit between the contract terms and the award ? Chapter I. External limits to party autonomy : international arbitration and court control. A. International arbitration is affected by national law B. The effects of an award that considers only the contract and disregards the applicable law C. The power of the arbitral tribunal to apply a law different from the law chosen in the contract Chapter II. Internal limits to party autonomy : the interaction of the contract with the governing law A. Contract practice and the attempt to create a closed circuit B. How national law may impact international contractsChapter III. Transnational law does not permit to overcome all limits to party autonomy A. Transnational law is not sufficient to replace national law B. Sources of transnational law C. Harmonization of specific sectors D. Harmonization of the general contract law ? E. The governing law may not be replaced F. Conclusion Conclusion. No uniform approach in arbitration Bibliography. Intellectual Property: Cross-Border Recognition of Rights and National Development by M. Sinjela, Professor at the University of Lusaka: Excerpt of table of contents: Chapter I. Introduction Chapter II. Intellectual property Chapter III. Patents Chapter IV. Trademarks Chapter V. Copyright Chapter VI. Protection of new plant varieties Chapter VII. Traditional knowledge Chapter VIII. Conclusion . International Co-operation in Energy Affairs by R. Dolzer, Professor at the University of Bonn (Retired): Excerpt of table of contents: Chapter I. Introduction Chapter II. Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources Chapter III. Prospects for international co-operation : characteristics and determinants of the current international markets Chapter IV. Global cross-sectoral instruments ? Chapter V. Organizations with sectoral competence Chapter VI. Producer/consumer organizations Chapter VII. Associations with a mandate covering pricing Chapter VIII. Regional organizations Chapter IX. Comparing oil and gas with other commodities Chapter X. Conclusions