Both John Keats and Thomas Carlyle were born in 1795, but one rarely thinks of them together. When one does, curious speculations result. It is difficult to think of Carlyle as a young Romantic or of Keats as a Victorian Sage, but had Carlyle died prematurely and had Keats lived to a ripe old age, we might now be considering a Romantic Carlyle and a Victorian Keats. Such a juxtaposition leads one to consider the use and abuse, the fusions and confusions, of period terms in literary history and in criticism. Does Carlyle represent Romanticism as typically as Keats? Does Keats's work give us any cause to believe that he might have developed into a Victorian poet? Do the terms Romanticism and Victorian have any useful literary historical and literary critical value? What are the marks of the transition from one to the other? Or is the existence of such a transition an illusion? In this volume, some essays consider aspects of Keats or of Carlyle independently, or together, or focus on contemporaries of one or other or of both and explore the effect of their literary and ideological relationships, and the often indefinable sense that we all have of different styles, manners and periods, as well as the awareness that we might all be equally deceived about such distinctive boundaries and definitions.
Introduction: Victorian Keats and Romantic Carlyle 1 C.C. BARFOOT: Hyperion to a Satyr: Keats, Carlyle, and This Strange Disease of Modern Life 2 Aveek SEN: Keats and the Sublime 3 Allan C. CHRISTENSEN: Newtonian and Goethean Colours in the Poetry of Keats 4 Ralph PITE: Keats's Last Works and His Posthumous Existence 5 Jacqueline SCHOEMAKER: Female Empathy to Manliness: Keats in 1819 6 Jane MALLINSON: Sure in Language Strange: John and Tom and Fanny and Emily 7 Ralph JESSOP: Scottish Philosophical Springs of a Romantic Literature: Keats's Older Contemporary Carlyle 8 Keith WHITE: Carlyle's Burns 9 Helga HUSHAHN: Goethe Translated: Carlyle's
Wilhelm Meister 10 Margaret RUNDLE: Poised on the Cusp: Thomas Carlyle - Romantic, Victorian, or Both? 11 Ann RIGNEY: The Multiple Histories of Thomas Carlyle 12 Geraldine HIGGINS: Carlyle's Celtic Congregation: Reviving the Irish Hero 13 Phillip MALLETT: Carlyle and Ruskin: Work and Art 14 Karen WOLVEN: Ebenezer Elliott, The Corn-Law Rhymer: Poor Men
Do Write - The Emergence of Class Identity within a Poetry of Transition 15 Judith van OOSTEROM: Unlikely Bedfellows: Thomas Carlyle and Margaret Oliphant as Vulnerable Autobiographers 16 Odin DEKKERS: Robertson on Carlyle: A Rationalist Struggling with Victorianism 17 Douglas S. MACK: Frankenstein,
The Three Perils of Woman, and
Wuthering Heights: Romantic and Victorian Perspectives on the Fiction of James Hogg 18 Bart VELDHOEN: Tennyson's Gothic: Idyllic, Unromantic Arthur 19 Wim TIGGES: Heir of All the Ages: Tennyson between Romanticism, Victorianism and Modernism 20 Valeria TINKLER-VILLANI: Atheism and Belief in Shelley, Swinburne and Christina Rossetti Notes on Contributors Index