The aim of this book is to present essays centered upon the subjects of Formal Ontology and Logical Philosophy. The idea of investigating philosophical problems by means of logical methods was intensively promoted in Torun by the Department of Logic of Nicolaus Copernicus University during last decade. Another aim of this book is to present to the philosophical and logical audience the activities of the Torunian Department of Logic during this decade. The papers in this volume contain the results concerning Logic and Logical Philosophy, obtained within the confines of the projects initiated by the Department of Logic and other research projects in which the Torunian Department of Logic took part.
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Table of contents

Jacek MALINOWSKI, Andrzej PIETRUSZCZAK: Editorial Introduction. Logic in Toruń: 1992–2003
Dale JACQUETTE: Crossroads of Logic and Ontology: A Modal-Combinatorial Analysis of Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing
Uwe MEIXNER: An Onto-Nomological Theory of Modality
Roberto POLI: The Ontology of What is Not There
Heinrich WANSING: Contradiction and Contrariety. Priest on Negation
Krister SEGERBERG: Moore Problems in Full Dynamic Doxastic Logic
Jacek MALINOWSKI: On the Formalization of Strawson’s Presupposition
Janusz MUCHA: The Concept of “Social Relations” in Classic Analytical Interpretative Sociology: Weber and Znaniecki
Andrzej PIETRUSZCZAK: On Applications of Truth-Value Connectives for Testing Arguments with Natural Connectives
Itala M. Loffredo D’OTTAVIANO, Hércules Araujo FEITOSA : Translating from Łukasiewicz’s Logics into Classical Logic: Is it Possible?
Luis Fariñas del CERRO, Olivier GASQUET: Modal Tableaux for Reasoning About Diagrams
Diderik BATENS: Narrowing Down Suspicion in Inconsistent Premise Sets
Joke MEHEUS: Discussive Adaptive Logics: Handling Internal and External Inconsistencies
Sergei P. ODINTSOV: Absurdity as Unary Operator
Guido VANACKERE: A World of Experiences, an Adequate Language, and Self-Reference Revised
Sonja SMETS: From Intuitionistic Logic to Dynamic Operational Quantum Logic
Erik WEBER: Are There Ontological Explanations?
Marek ROSIAK: Formal and Existential Analysis of Subject and Properties
Tadeusz SZUBKA: The Metaphysical Realism Debate: What is at Stake?
Tomasz JARMUŻEK, Maciej NOWICKI, Andrzej PIETRUSZCZAK: An Outline of the Anselmian Theory of God
Roman MURAWSKI: Philosophy of Mathematics in the 20th Century: Main Trends and Doctrines
Krzysztof WÓJTOWICZ: Independence and Justification in Mathematics
Tomasz BIGAJ: Do Quantum-Mechanical Systems Always Possess Definite Properties Dictated by Their States?
Renata ZIEMIŃSKA: Two Notions of the Internal and Goldman’s Epistemic Externalism

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