Japan, Russia, and Turkey are major examples of countries with different ethnic, religious, and cultural background that embarked on the path of modernization without having been colonized by a Western country. In all three cases, national consciousness has played a significant role in this context. The project of Modernity is obviously of European origin, but is it essentially European? Does modernization imply loss of a country’s cultural or national identity? If so, what is the “fate” of the modernization process in these cases? The presence of the idea and reality of civil society can be considered a real marker of Modernity in this respect, because it presupposes the development of liberalism, individualism and human rights. But are these compatible with nationalism and with the idea of a national religion?
These questions are the more pressing, as Japan is considered part of the Western world in many respects, and Russia and Turkey are defining their relation to the European Union in different ways. An investigation of these three countries, set off against more general reflections, sheds light on the possibilities or limitations of modernization n a non-European context.
Preface Introduction Part I Russia Pauline SCHROOYEN: Modernization in Late Imperial Russia: Some Critical Reflections on and Suggestions for the Study of Russian Society Marina BYKOVA: Nation and Nationalism. Russia in Search of its National Identity Jonathan SUTTON: Civil Society, Religion, and the Nation. Reflections on the Russian Case Hans OVERSLOOT: Towards a Revival of the State as an Ideology in Contemporary Russia Part II Japan Paul KEVENHÖRSTER: Civil Society, Religion, and the Nation: The Case of Japan Tetsuo NAJITA: Civil Society in Japan’s Modernity – An Interpretive Overview Rikki KERSTEN: Maruyama Masao and the Dilemma of the Public Intellectual in Postwar Japan Inken PROHL: Religion and National Identity in Contemporary Japan Part III Turkey Inken PROHL: Religion and National Identity in Contemporary Japan Part III Turkey Gerrit STEUNEBRINK: Liberalism and Nationalism in Europe and Turkey: On the Reception and Application of Modern European Ideas in a New Historical and Cultural Context Yasin CEYLAN: The Conflict between State and Religion in Turkey Ayşe KADIOĞLU: Citizenship and Individuation in Turkey: The Triumph of Will over Reason Akin ERGÜDEN: Doing Things with Metaphor: The Ru(o)le of Metaphor in the Formation of the Grammar of the Public Sphere in Turkey Part IV General Perspectives Peter van der VEER: Religion, Nation and the Public Sphere Machiel KARSKENS: Nationalism as Political Strategy Contrary to Civil Society Evert van der ZWEERDE: … But Where Is the State? On the Contributors Index