This volume of the
Baltic Yearbook of International Law contains materials from a symposium that the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) and the Faculty of Law of the University of Tartu held at the University of Tartu History Museum on 17–18 February 2014.
Among the selected authors, the Yearbook is pleased to continue to introduce new authors from the region.
The Baltic Yearbook of International Law is the first legal journal in the field of international law published under the auspices of the Baltic Editorial Board that attempts to bring to the international debate the issues that are of importance in the Baltic States and provides a forum for the views of, among others, Baltic international scholars on various topical themes of international law. The first volume appeared in 2001 with the symposium on the question of International Legal Status of the Baltic States. The Yearbook contains State practice reports from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and thus serves as an important source of information that is not available elsewhere. On several occasions the Yearbook has offered articles discussing the history of international law and current issues in Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation, thus making more accessible a regional discourse to a wider audience in the world.
Editors-in-Chief: Lauri Mälksoo, Ineta Ziemele, Dainius Žalimas Editorial Board: Egidijus Bieliunas, Judge at the General Court of the Court of Justice of the EU Tanel Kerikmäe, LL.M., LL.Lic., Acting Director of Tallinn Law School at the Tallinn University of Technology Krīstine Krūma, Judge of the Constitutional Court of Latvia Egils Levits, Judge at the Court of Justice of the EU Rein Müllerson, President of the Tallinn University Law School; Member of the Institut de droit international Lauri Mälksoo, Professor of International Law, University of Tartu Vilenas Vadapalas, former Judge of the General Court of the Court of Justice of the EU Dainius Žalimas, Professor and Head of the Institute of International and European Union Law, Faculty of Law, Vilnius University, Judge of the Constitutional Court of Lithuania Ineta Ziemele, Judge, European Court of Human Rights; Professor, Rīga Graduate School of Law Pēteris Zilgalvis, J.D., Staff Member at the European Commission Advisory Board: Gudmundur Alfredsson, Professor, University of Akureyri; Visiting Professor, University of Strasbourg Theo van Boven, Professor Emeritus of International Law, University of Maastricht James Crawford, Whewell Professor of International Law, Director, Research Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge Andrew Drzemczewski, Ph.D., Barrister-in-Law, Council of Europe Secretariat John Dugard, Professor of Public International Law, University of Leiden; Emeritus Professor Of Law, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Member, International Law Commission Asbjørn Eide, Founder of the Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, University of Oslo Christine Gray, Ph.D., Professor in International Law, University of Cambridge Mahulena Hofmann, Jean Monnet Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Giessen Göran Melander, Professor Emeritus of International Law, University of Lund Allan Rosas, Professor, Judge at the Court of Justice of the EU Bruno Simma, Arbitrator, Iran-United States Claims Tribunal; former Judge, International Court of Justice Brigitte Stern, Professor Emeritus of International Law, University of Paris I Rüdiger Wolfrum, Professor, Dr. Dr. h. C., former Director, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law Managing Editor: Timothy Maldoon, LL.M., Publications Officer, Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Lund, Sweden
Symposium “Low Intensity Cyber Operatio ns – The International Legal Regime”, organized by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence and the Faculty of Law of the University of Tartu, 17–18 February 2014 Editorial Note; Articles:
Michael N. Schmitt and M. Christopher Pitts: Cyber Countermeasures and Effects on Third Parties: The International Legal Regime
Karine Bannelier-Christakis: Cyber Diligence: A Low-Intensity Due Diligence Principle for Low-Intensity Cyber Operations?
Zhxiong Huang: The Attribution Rules in ILC’s Articles on State Responsibility: A Preliminary Assessment on Their Application to Cyber Operations
Eduard Ivanov: Combating Cyberterrorism under International Law
Eric Talbot Jensen: State Obligations in Cyber Operations
Andrey L. Kozik: The Concept of Sovereignty as a Foundation for Determining the Legality of the Conduct of States in Cyberspace
Nicholas Tsagourias: The Law Applicable to Countermeasures against Low-Intensity Cyber Operations
René Värk: Diplomatic and Consular Privileges and Immunities in Case of Unfriendly Cyber Activities
Sean Watts: Low-Intensity Cyber Operations and the Principle of Non-intervention