British Shipping in the Mediterranean during the Napoleonic Wars

The Untold Story of a Successful Adaptation

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In British shipping in the Mediterranean Katerina Galani investigates the impact of the French and Napoleonic wars on British maritime economic activity. Due to the close cooperation of the public and private sector at sea, the British adopted flexible business strategies to mitigate economic warfare and sustain shipping and trade in the Mediterranean.
The book offers a comprehensive approach by combining the study of international relations, ports, ships, business organisation, deep-sea voyages and intra-Mediterranean navigation. Katerina Galani conceptualises the Mediterranean as an economic entity and she insightfully examines, for the first time, free traders along with the chartered Levant Company. Her analysis draws upon a unique collection of British and Mediterranean sources to construct a multifaceted view of British maritime activity.
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Biographical Note

Katerina Galani, Ph.D. (2011), Oxford University, is Post-Doctoral Fellow in Economic History at the Ionian University. She was awarded the Frank Broeze Prize for Outstanding doctoral thesis in Maritime History. She has participated in research projects on maritime, financial and economic history and she has several publications in peer-reviewed journals and collective volumes.

Table of contents

Acknowledgments
List of Illustrations
List of Abbreviations
Note on Names of Places

1 Introduction
 The “Extended Mediterranean” in the 19th Century
 Structure of the book

2 The End of the ‘Long 18th Century’ in the Mediterranean: An Overview
 Introduction
 The Mediterranean and the British Empire
 The Actors: The British
 Navigating the Mediterranean: The Market Scope
 The Co-actors: Foreign and Local Carriers
 Conclusion

3 Charting British Sea Routes in the Mediterranean
 Introduction
 Lloyd’s List as a Historical Source
 Some Methodological Remarks
 The Evidence on British Shipping
 An Increase in Shipping: Causality and Interpretations

4 British Shipping on the Micro-Scale: From Long-Distance to Short-Distance Hauls
 Introduction
 British Shipping at the Port of Livorno
 Sea Routes: Livorno’s Involvement in Intra-Mediterranean Hauls
 Between Grand Traffic and Short-Distance Shipping: The Passengers
 Conclusion

5 An Age of Transition for British Shipping: Institutional and Organisational Shifts
 Introduction
 Shipping in the Early Modern Era
 Institutional Changes: A Step towards the Systematisation of the Industry
 Changes in Everyday Business: Specialisation
 Conclusion

6 How Profitable a Business was it After All?
 Introduction
 Earnings
 The Cost of Shipping
 The Ship
 The Organisation of Shipping
 The Crew
 Conclusion

7 Levant Company: The Institutional Branch of British Shipping in the Levant
 Introduction
 The Levant Company: Its Operation
 The State of the Company’s Shipping and Trade in the Late 18th Century
 Free Traders and the Monopolistic Company
 Conclusion

8 Conclusion

Appendices
Bibliography
Index

Readership

All interested in economic, business, maritime and naval history and those concerned with 18th-century British and Mediterranean shipping and trade, the Napoleonic Wars and economic warfare.

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