Intellectual Origins of the Republic: Ahmet Ağaoğlu and the Genealogy of Liberalism in Turkey

Series:

Few studies tracing the history of liberalism have taken into account that its reception in non-Western or westernising countries, in the form of the denial or acceptance of its core values and institutions, is an important aspect of the liberal tradition. In Intellectual Origins of the Republic: Ahmet Ağaoğlu and the Genealogy of Liberalism in Turkey, Ӧzavcı investigates the histories of liberalism and nationalism in the late Russian and Ottoman Empires and early Republican Turkey through the prism of the life, ideas and times of the revolutionary writer Ahmet Ağaoğlu. This is the first in-depth study in the English language that places under scrutiny the Turkish idea of liberty and its endless yet destructive flirt with nationalism.
Restricted Access

E-Book:

EUR €113.00USD $154.00

Biographical Note

H. Ozan Özavcı, Ph.D. (2011) is a Research Fellow at the University of Utrecht and Fernand-Braudel Fellow at l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) in Paris. He has published several articles in major international peer-reviewed journals and book sections about histories of liberalism, authoritarianism, security and political parties.

Table of contents

Preface ... vii

1 Introduction ... 1
1.1 The Making of a Liberal in Turkey ... 9
1.2 Ideas and Contexts ... 24
1.2.1 Ağaoğlu in Literature ... 27

2 Between Two Worlds: Ideas in the Making ... 34
2.1 Family Life and Education ... 35
2.1.1 Encounter with Russian Radicalism ... 38
2.1.2 Paris ... 42
2.2 Early French Influences ... 45
2.2.1 James Darmesteter and Ernest Renan ... 46
2.3 Early Writings ... 54

3 Return to the Near East ... 61
3.1 The Caucasus ... 61
3.1.1 The 1905 Petition, Violence and the End of the Oil Revolution ... 65
3.2 Istanbul ... 75
3.2.1 The Turkish Hearths ... 80
3.2.2 Activities during World War I ... 81

4 Rights, Religion and Nationalism ... 88
4.1 Rights and Equality ... 89
4.2 Religion, Modernity and the Question of Women ... 91
4.3 The Origins of Turkish Nationalism ... 100

5 Founding the Republic ... 120
5.1 The Establishment of an Authoritarian Regime ... 123
5.2 The Economy and a Temporary Democracy ... 133

6 Revolution and Ideology ... 143
6.1 A Liberal Revolution? ... 146
6.1.1 A Critique of the Revolutionaries ... 149
6.2 Ideology and the Intelligentsia ... 152
6.2.1 Two Liberalisms and Democracy ... 156

7 State, Society and the Individual ... 161
7.1 Liberal Order ... 163
7.1.1 Durkheim and Ağaoğlu ... 167
7.1.2 Elements of Modern Liberalism: Division of Labour, Occupational Groupings and Interdependence ... 171
7.1.3 Civic Equality and Individual Liberty ... 176
7.2 Étatism and Private Initiative ... 178

8 Westernisation and Nationalism ... 191
8.1 Turkey’s Westernisation ... 192
8.2 The Hidden Dialogue between Gökalp and Ağaoğlu ... 194
8.3 Nationalism Revisited ... 199
8.4 Monday Evening Talks ... 203

9 The Moral Ideology of the Republic ... 207
9.1 Petr Kropotkin and the Sources of Morality ... 209
9.2 The Origins of Moral Decadence Revisited ... 212
9.3 The Land of Free Men ... 214
9.4 The Divided Self ... 220

10 Conclusion: The Road to Liberty? ... 229

Bibliography ... 235
Index ... 264

Readership

Those interested in the history of the Caucasus, France, late Ottoman Empire and early Republican Turkey, students of liberalism, nationalism, Kemalism, communitarianism and (Pan-)Islamism.

Index Card

Collection Information