Integrated Truth and Existential Phenomenology: A Thomistic Response to Iconic Anti-Realists in Science relates an existential phenomenology to modal reasoning. By this reasoning, rooted in a consciousness of phenomena in themselves, a Thomistic realism is advanced wherein scientific inquiry yields objective truth and presupposes a causal principle. This principle, as an inferably true modality, strictly implies a first cause. And this cause as a supreme norm, causally created human nature as it ought to be. So with no naturalistic fallacy, a naturalistic ethics is inferred from our psycho-biological nature that also informs art and politics. Politics, as the institutionalization of ethics, is inferable from ethical prescriptions that are as certifiably true as the descriptions of science that inform it.
Robert C. Trundle, PhD (1984), Fellow at the Adler-Aquinas Institute, is a former faculty member at Regis College and University of Colorado at Colorado Springs as well as a former Outstanding Junior Professor and full Professor at Northern Kentucky University.
Table of contents
KENNETH A. BRYSON xvii
Foreword by Peter A. Redpath xiii
ONE Existential Phenomenology and Truth in Science
1. Dilemmas of Truth that Afflict Realism
2. A Weak Realism Despite the Dilemmas?
3. A Robust Realism for Mature Theories
4. Theory-Dependence Vs. a Consciousness-Rooted Realism
TWO Realism Rooted in Observational Consciousness
1. Consciousness and Reality
2. Reality of a Paradox to a Paradoxical Consciousness
3. Existential Phenomenology: An Antidote to Neuroscience Sophistry and Other Substitutes for Philosophy
4. The Recurring Seductions of Self-Refuting Reductionisms
5. Should Neuroscience Study the Phenomena of Neuroscience and Disbelief in God?
6. Anti-Phenomenological Footings of Neuroscience Philosophy
7. How Philosophy was Previously Skewed by Aping Science
8. Contra Kant: Consciousness of a Thereness Apart From Thought
9. Consciousness of Aspects of Phenomena
10. Seeing Non-Epistemologically in the Analytic Tradition
11. In This Tradition, Seeing Epistemologically
THREE From Cultural Relativism as a Species of Realism to Realism in Science
1. A Common-Sense Inference of True Theories Versus an Everyday Contextual Relativism
2. Realism as Opposed to a Politically-Correct Cultural Relativism
3. Phenomenological and Logical Support of Realism
4. Scientific Significance of Aspects of Phenomena
5. An Anti-Realist K-K Thesis Surmounted by Common Sense
6. A Phenomenological Explanation of Historical Developments
7. The Developments Include Free Will and Causal Determinism
FOUR Scientific Realism and Problems of Observation
1. Theory Vs. Theory-Neutral Observation
2. Observation-Theoretical Distinctions Or Differences in Degree?
3. Theory-Laden Observation and Observational Consciousness
4. Observational Footing is Not a Physics-Friendly Metaphysics
5. Metaphysics Vs. Modal Logic and a Phenomenology of Observation
6. Observation-Laden Theory: Are Theoretical Entities Observed?
7. Observation via Existential Phenomenology is Not a Theory
FIVE The Turn From Realism Roused by a Self-Avowed Realist
1. Covert Influence of Popper’s Anti-Realism
2. A Preamble to Popper’s Problems in the Philosophy of Science
3. The Overlooked Origin of Observation Statements as Falsifiers
4. How Falsificationism is Ungrounded by Observation
5. An Anti-Realism of Kuhn’s Radical Relativism
6. From Relativism to Post-Modern Reinventions of Self and Theories
7. The Relation of Science to Sophists and Super Scientists
8. A Peculiar Case of Missing the Profound Point about Popper
9. Radical Empiricism Fueling Feyerabend’s Anarchy
10. Feyerabend’s Anti-Establishment Think-Tank-Like Conjectures
11. Conjectures Vs. Sartre’s Strange Support of Aristotle and Thomas
SIX A Return to Scientific Realism
1. Commensurability: A Presupposition of Scientific Progress
2. Truth Upheld by De Re and De Dicto Impossibilities?
3. The Impossibilities are not Undercut by Meaning Variances
4. Verisimilitude: Increasing Truth, Not Truth-likeness
5. Problem of Ascribing Truth to Theories as Conjunctive Propositions
6. Propositional Logic Vs. What It Makes Sense to Say
7. Is it Senseless to Say that Superseded Theories are Still True?
8. Truth is an Attainable Aim of Methodology
9. A Methodology Tolerating New Phenomena Not Being Duplicated
10. From Eventual Duplication to Novelty and New Research
11. From Research and Success to the Issue of Internal Inconsistency
SEVEN Scientific Truth Informs Truths of Ethics, Art and Politics
1. Integrated Truth with Its Starting Point in Real Existence
2. Existence Subject to Causes Understood Methodologically
3. Modalities in Science Presuppose the Causal Principle
4. Preamble: the Causal Principle Strictly Implies a First Cause
5. Does Evolution Exclude a First-Cause Creator? Is this Creator Inferred Invalidly?
6. A Soundly Inferred God Averts Kierkegaard’s “Leap of Faith”
DIAGRAM: KIERKEGAARD’S “LEAP OF FAITH”…IS AVERTED BY THE BRIDGE OF NATURAL THEOLOGY
7. A “Leap of Faith” Avoided by Sound Modal Reasoning
8. Inferring a First Cause and Its Integration of Truth in Science, Ethics, Art and Politics
9. The Sound Inference of a First Cause and the Conditional
10. Denying a First Cause and Rise of the Naturalistic Fallacy
11. A First Cause and Our Psychobiological Nature Being as it Ought to Be
12. Ethical Truth Favoring the Family is Inferable from Science
13. Scientific Truth Informs Truth in Art, Architecture and Music
14. Political Truth is Informed by Truths of Ethics and Science
INFERENCES IN THIS ESSAY: INTEGRATING TRUTHS IN SCIENCE, THEOLOGY, ETHICS, ART AND POLITICS
Anyone interested in surmounting the naturalistic fallacy that, paralyzing modern ethics, does not herein exclude ethics, art and politics being as true as the medical sciences that inform them.