Kazimierz Twardowski: A Grammar for Philosophy

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Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938) is the founder of the Lvov-Warsaw School with its strong tradition in logic and its scientific approach to philosophy. Twardowski’s unique way of doing philosophy, his method, is of central importance for understanding his impact as a teacher. This method can be understood as a philosophical grammar, which is also how Leibniz conceived his universal language of thought.
Analytic philosophy in the twentieth century can be characterized by its opposition to psychologism, on the one hand, and its opposition to metaphysics, on the other. This is changing now, as questions within the philosophy of mind and metaphysics are raised by analytic philosophers today.
Maria van der Schaar shows in her book that we can improve our analytic methods by making use of Twardowski’s philosophical grammar. Twardowski’s positive attitude to psychology and metaphysics may also help us to develop an analytic metaphysics and to get a better understanding of the relation between psychology and philosophy.

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Biographical Note
Maria van der Schaar (Ph.D. 1991), Leiden University, has published on the Brentano School, the origins of analytic philosophy and the theory of judgement and assertion. Recently she wrote a book on G.F. Stout ( Palgrave Macmillan) and edited the volume Judgement and the Epistemic Foundation of Logic (Springer).
Table of contents
1. Introduction. Twardowski as A Pupil and A Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. Questions of Method. From Descriptive Psychology to
Philosophical Grammar . 16
1. Descriptive Psychology . 16
2. A Philosophical Grammar . 24
3. The Grammatical Distinction Between Internal and External
Object . 32
4. Modifying Terms . 35
3. Content and Object. From Psychology to Metaphysics . . . . . . . . . . . 50
1. The Distinction between Content and Object . 50
2. The Content of the Act . 55
3. The Object of the Act . 59
From Psychology to Metaphysics . 59
Husserl’s Reaction to Twardowski’s Account of Intentionality . 61
Metaphysics and Mereology . 68
General Objects . 74
4. Images and Concepts . 80
4. Judgement and Meaning. ON Actions and Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
1. The Historical Background of Twardowski’s Theory
of Judgement . 84
2. Some Conceptual Distinctions . 91
3. A Development in Twardowski’s Early Account of Judgement . 97
4. Actions and Products . 103
5. Twardowski’s Critique of Russell’s Multiple Relation Theory
of Judgement . 113
5. Knowing and Prejudice. An Educational Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  117
1. Some Conceptual Distinctions . 117
2. Brentano and Bolzano on Knowledge . 119
3. Knowledge, Science and the Cognitive Act . 122
4. Prejudice and the Critical Mind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

6. Truth and Time. Twardowski’s Impact on
his Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  129
1. The Correspondence Definition of Truth . 129
2. The Absoluteness of Truth and the Logical Principles . 135
3. Determinism and the Relativity of Truth to Time . 150
Truth and Time . 150
Jan Łukasiewicz . 152
Tadeusz Kotarbiński . 154
Leśniewski’s and Twardowski’s Reaction to Kotarbiński . 157
Conclusion . 160
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  163
Name Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  171
Readership
Those interested in the K. Twardowski, the Brentano School and the Lvov-Warsaw School, and those interested in analytic metaphysics, intentionality, judgement, semantics and the relation between philosophy and psychology.
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