The Byzantine Turks, 1204-1461

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In The Byzantine Turks, 1204–1461 Rustam Shukurov offers an account of the Turkic minority in Late Byzantium including the Nicaean, Palaiologan, and Grand Komnenian empires. The demography of the Byzantine Turks and the legal and cultural aspects of their entrance into Greek society are discussed in detail. Greek and Turkish bilingualism of Byzantine Turks and Tourkophonia among Greeks were distinctive features of Byzantine society of the time. Basing his arguments upon linguistic, social, and cultural evidence found in a wide range of Greek, Latin, and Oriental sources, Rustam Shukurov convincingly demonstrates how Oriental influences on Byzantine life led to crucial transformations in Byzantine mentality, culture, and political life. The study is supplemented with an etymological lexicon of Oriental names and words in Byzantine Greek.

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Rustam Shukurov, D.Sc. in History (2012), is Professor of Byzantine studies at Moscow State University. He has published monographs, translations, and many articles on the Byzantine, Iranian and Turkic worlds, including The Grand Komnenoi and the Orient (1204–1461) (Moscow, 2001).
"This study offers for the first time a complete guide to interrelations between the Byzantines and the people of (mainly) Turkic origin who penetrated the Byzantine Empire from the eleventh century onwards. Shukurov presents rich historiographical and linguistic material on how the Turks acquired Byzantine identity through language and religion. The author supplements his Greek sources with Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Armenian and Georgian materials, which allows him to analyse the complex and multi-faceted cultural panorama of Asia Minor in the period. This study will clearly constitute a useful tool for those interested oin Byzantine-Turkic relations."
Spyros P. Panagopoulos, in: Al-Masaq XXIX (2017).
Contents
Acknowledgements xi
List of Figures and Tables xii
Introduction 1
1 The Byzantine Classification of the Turks 11
1 On Byzantine Epistemology 11
2 The Locative Criterion and the Theory of Climates 17
3 Two-Part Classification: Genera and Species 26
4 Generic Categories 27
5 The Species 33
6 The Concept Πέρσαι 37
7 The Defects of the Method 42
8 The Linguistic Criterion 44
9 The Languages of the Turks 48
10 Turks and Religious Identity 53
11 Marriages with Non-Christians 55
12 The Validity of Baptism 59
2 Byzantine Onomastics: Problems of Method 65
1 The Onomastic Database 65
2 The West Byzantine Lands in the Database 68
3 The Byzantine Pontos 70
4 On Byzantine Patterns of Naming 72
5 A Linguistic Problem 74
6 The Problem of Generations 77
7 Credibility of Anthroponymical Data 78
8 “Scythian” and “Persian” Names 84
3 The “Persians” and the “Scythians” 86
1 Historical Background 86
2 The “Scythians” 90
3 The “Persians” 94
4 The Byzantine “Persians” in 1204–1262 96
5 The “Persian” Resettlement of 1262–1263 98
6 Kaykāwus’ Family in Byzantium 105
7 Kaykāwus’ People 120
8 “Persian” Immigrations until the Beginning of the Fourteenth
Century 131
9 The Turkic Immigrants in the First Half of the Fourteenth
Century 134
10 The Last Byzantine Turks? 147
10.1 Text 148
10.2 Translation 150
10.3 Commentary 152
4 The Byzantine Turks in the Balkans 157
1 Byzantine Macedonia 159
2 The Lower Strymon and Serres 161
3 Kalamaria in Western Chalkidike 164
4 Eastern Chalkidike 166
5 Berroia and Lake Giannitsa 168
6 The Vardar Valley, Skopje, the Strumica 170
7 Thessalonike and Other Localities 174
8 Ethnic and Social Structure 174
9 Constantinople and Some Other Regions 177
10 A Note on Chronology 179
11 The Problem of Merchants 181
5 The Noble Lineages 183
1 Constructing a “Family” 184
2 The Gazes Families (I and II) 184
3 The Melik/Melikes/Melek Family 187
4 The Soultanos Family (I) 190
5 The Soultanos Family (II) 194
6 The Apelmene Family 196
7 The Masgidas Families (I and II) 197
8 The Iagoupes Family 200
9 The Anataulas Family 209
6 Assimilation Tools 216
1 The Motivation of the Turks 216
2 An Opposite Example 220
3 Christianization 223
4 More on Inclusion and Exclusion 231
5 Proprietors and Pronoiars 234
6 Imperial Service 239
7 Slaves, Servants, and Hostages 244
8 Cultural Adaptation 249
9 Turkic Minority? 251
7 Asians in the Byzantine Pontos 255
1 Oriental Names of the Pontos 255
2 Nations and Tribes 259
3 Social Standing 268
4 The Pontic Nomads 281
5 Christians and Crypto-Muslims 290
6 Penetration of Asians into Trebizond 297
Appendix I: The Wives of Alexios II Grand Komnenos 303
Appendix II: The Marriages of the Grand Komnenoi with Muslims 305
8 “Turkophonia” in Byzantium 306
1 Byzantine Diglossia 306
2 Oriental Borrowings 308
3 Textiles 312
4 Clothes and Household Items 315
5 Spices, Delicacies, Medications 324
6 Birds and Animals 326
7 Trading Terminology 327
8 Imperial Court and Military Terminology 332
9 The Positive Image of the East 339
10 Expanding the Horizon 343
11 Diglossia and Place-Names 349
12 Diglossia and the Redoubling of the World 354
13 Evidence of Modern Greek 358
14 Byzantine Turkophonia 359
15 Latent Turkification 380
16 Cultural Interchange and a Lethal Outcome 381
9 Etymological Glossary 388
1 Proper Names 388
2 Appellatives 404
Epilogue 413
1 The Turkic Minority 413
2 Regional Features 414
3 Cultural Transformation 418
Bibliography 421
Index of Greek and Slavonic Names and Terms 474
General Index 486
All interested in the history of Byzantium, the Early Ottoman Empire, and anyone concerned with intercultural and interconfessional (Christian and Muslim) relations and influences in the Mediterranean.