The Communist Movement at a Crossroads

Plenums of the Communist International’s Executive Committee, 1922-1923


This volume contains the proceedings and resolutions from three expanded meetings of the Executive Committee of the Communist International (Comintern) held in 1922–1923, while Lenin was still alive. At these 'mini-congresses', Communist leaders from around the world debated out major strategic questions and initiatives, from united front policy to the fight against fascism.
The material in this book – much of it appearing in English for the first time – is an essential source for understanding the world revolutionary movement in Lenin’s time, as well as the subsequent evolution of the Comintern. It is an important supplement to the widely acclaimed series of volumes edited by John Riddell containing the record of the Comintern’s first four world congresses.
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Biographical Note

Mike Taber has edited collections of works by Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, James P. Cannon, and Maurice Bishop.

John Riddell has translated and edited eight volumes of documents of the Communist movement in the era of the Russian revolution, including the proceedings and resolutions of the Communist International’s fi rst four world congresses.

Table of contents

Resolutions and Reports
Editorial Introduction
About This Edition
List of Abbreviations

First Enlarged Plenum 21 February–4 March 1922

Appeal by the Communist International Executive Committee
Session 1. Organisation of Meeting; National Reports (21 February) Election of Presidium. Report of Credentials Commission (Rákosi). Agenda. Rules of order (Brandler). Election of commissions. Report of the Communist Party of Germany (Thalheimer, Zetkin).
Session 2. National Reports (21 February) The Communist Party of France (Cachin). The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Burian, Kreibich).
Session 3. National Reports. (22 February) The situation in Britain (MacManus). The situation in Italy (Terracini). The situation in the United States of North America (Marshall). Salute to the Red Army (Cachin).
Session 4. National Reports (22 February) Activity of the Communist Party of the United States (Carr). The situation in Poland (Antonowicz). Report from Balkan Federation (Kolarov). New commissions.
Session 5. Executive Committee Report (24 February) Report of the Executive Committee and Presidium (Zinoviev). Report on negotiations with representatives of the Two-and-a-Half International (Radek). Report on activity of the International Women’s Secretariat (Kollontai).
Session 6. United Front Report (24 February) Report on united-front policy (Zinoviev).
Session 7. United Front Counter-Reports (25 February) Counter-reports on united-front policy (Renoult, Roberto, Terracini).
Session 8. United Front Discussion (26 February) Discussion on united-front policy (Lunacharsky, Radek, MacManus, Thalheimer, Burian).
Session 9. United Front Discussion (26 February) Continuation of discussion on united-front policy (Walecki, Trotsky, Marshall).
Session 10. United Front Discussion (27 February) Discussion on united front (Lozovsky). The situation in Yugoslavia (Stanič). Discussion on united front (Treint, Kolarov, Tomann, Rákosi).
Session 11. United Front Discussion; Béla Kun Affair (27 February) Continuation of discussion on united-front policy (Bobst). The Béla Kun affair (Lunacharsky, Landler, Zinoviev).
Session 12. United Front Summaries; Workers’ Opposition (28 February) Summaries on united-front policy (Terracini, Renoult, Zinoviev). The case of the ‘Workers’ Opposition’ (Letter of the 22, Reply by RCP Central Committee).
Session 13. Trade Unions (1 March) Reports on the trade-union question (Lozovsky, Brandler).
Session 14. Famine Relief; New Economic Policy (1 March) Report on famine relief (Münzenberg). Theses on New Economic Policy in Russia (Sokolnikov).
Session 15. Communist Press; Youth (2 March) Report on the Communist press (Humbert-Droz). Report on International Press Correspondence (Thalheimer). Report on the economic demands of youth (Schüller). Resolution on the struggle against the impoverishment of worker youth. Motion on the agricultural proletariat (Osinsky).
Session 16. France; War Danger (2 March) Report on the situation of the workers’ movement in France (Trotsky). Resolution on the French question. Report on the danger of new imperialist wars (Zetkin). Election of the Presidium.
Session 17. Resolutions (4 March) Resolution on united-front policy. Resolution on proposed international conference. Resolution of the minority on the united front. Resolution of the minority on the international conference. Resolution on the trade-union question. Resolution on the Communist press. The New Economic Policy. Resolution on the struggle against war. Resolution on the Near East. Resolution on the British question. Resolution against the white terror. The agrarian question. Motion on famine relief and economic aid. Decision to call the Fourth World Congress. Report on the Russian question (Kreibich). Resolution on the Russian question. Announcements. Closing words (Zinoviev).
Appendix. Theses on the United Front (18 December 1921)

Second Enlarged Plenum 7–11 June 1922

Session 1. Opening; Social Revolutionaries; United Front (7 June) Attendance and voting. Agenda. The trial of the Social Revolutionaries (Zinoviev). Defence of Tomasz Dombal (Próchniak). Report on break-up of the Committee of Nine (Radek). Remarks on the united front (Zinoviev).
Session 2. Czechoslovakia (7 June) The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Jílek, Šmeral, Kreibich).
Session 3. Youth. France (8 June) Report of the Youth Executive (Kreibich). Reports on the French question (Frossard, Souvarine, Trotsky).
Session 4. Norway (9 June) The Norwegian question (Friis, Kuusinen, Friis).
Session 5. France (9 June) Discussion on the French question (Bordiga, Kreibich, Rappoport, Zetkin).
Session 6. France (10 June) Continuation of discussion on the French question (Brandler, Trotsky, Frossard, Zinoviev).
Session 7. Resolutions (11 June) Motion on the Berlin Conference. Report of the Czech Commission (Brandler). Resolution on the Czechoslovak Communist Party. The Italian question (Zinoviev). The trade-union question (Zinoviev). The French question (Trotsky). Resolution on the French Communist Party. Report from Norwegian Commission (Šmeral). Resolution on the Norwegian question. Fourth World Congress (Zinoviev) Programme Commission (Radek). Closing words (Zetkin).
Appendix A. The Berlin Conference of the Three Internationals (1) Attendance. (2) Common declaration adopted by conference. (3) Declaration of the Third International.
Appendix B. Lenin on the Berlin Conference (1) Letter to Bukharin and Zinoviev, 1 February 1922. (2) Letter to Politburo members on draft resolution of Enlarged ECCI Plenum, 23 February 1922. (3) Letter to Politburo members on the directives for the Comintern delegation to Berlin Conference, 14–15 March 1922. (4) Letter to the Politburo with a draft of directives to comrades travelling abroad, 17 March 1922. (5) We Have Paid Too Much, 9 April 1922.

Third Enlarged Plenum 12–23 June 1923

Session 1. Opening; Executive Committee Report (12 June) Attendance (Neurath). Agenda. Election of commissions. Report of the Executive Committee and Presidium (Zinoviev).
Session 2. Executive Committee Discussion (13 June) Discussion on Executive Committee report (Zinoviev, Duret, Varga, Urbani, Höglund, Radek, Falk, Bukharin, Böttcher).
Session 3. Executive Committee Discussion (13 June) Continuation of discussion on Executive Committee report (Flieg, Shatskin, Ewert, Trachtenberg, Johnson).
Session 4. Executive Committee Discussion (14 June) Continuation of discussion on Executive Committee report (Negri, Koritschoner, Newbold, Rosmer, Zápotocký, Kolarov, Beruzzi, Amter).
Session 5. Executive Committee Discussion (14 June) Continuation of discussion on Executive Committee report (Vladetić, Saitta, Scheflo, Serra, Giacomo, Höglund, Laursen, Krajewski, Aoki, Tranmael).
Session 6. Executive Report Summary; World Situation (15 June) Summary of discussion on Executive Committee report (Zinoviev). Report on world political situation (Radek).
Session 7. World Political Situation Discussion (16 June) Discussion on world political situation (Neurath, Roy, Böttcher, Jackson, Hoernle, Trachtenberg, Brand, Katayama, Tan Malaka).
Session 8. World Political Situation Discussion (16 June) Discussion on world political situation (Newbold, Aparicio, Thibaut). Summary of discussion on world political situation (Radek). In memory of Vorovsky (Stewart).
Session 9. Centralism Question (18 June) Reports on the limits of centralism in the Comintern (Bukharin, Ström). Discussion on centralism question (Falk, Beuer).
Session 10. Centralism Question (18 June) Discussion on centralism question (Ewert, Amter, Schüller, Scheflo, Lévy, Kuusinen, Höglund, Koritschoner, Radek, Urbani, Stewart, Ström, Falk, Flieg). Summary of discussion on centralism question (Bukharin).
Session 11. Trade Unions (19 June) Reports on trade-union question (Lozovsky, Walcher).
Session 12. Trade Unions; Fascism (20 June) Discussion on trade-union question (Urbani, Wieser, Zápotocký, Gallacher, Katayama, Johnson, Meshcheriakov). Summary of discussion on trade-union question (Lozovsky). Report on the struggle against fascism (Zetkin).
Session 13. Fascism; Comintern Programme (20 June) Discussion on fascism (Krajewski, Böttcher, Frey, Serra, Šmeral, Gyptner, Radek). Summary of discussion on fascism (Zetkin). The programme of the Communist International (Bukharin).
Session 14. Denmark; Norway (22 June) Report from Danish Commission (Ström). Resolution on the Danish question. Report from Commission on Centralism (Ewert). Resolution on the Norwegian question. Statements on Norwegian resolution (Falk, Inkpin, Amter, Stirner, Ewert, Zinoviev, Falk, Furubotn).
Session 15. Bulgaria; Commission Reports; Resolutions (23 June) Report of Credentials Commission (Hoernle). Report on the coup in Bulgaria and the Communist Party (Radek). Appeal to Bulgarian workers and peasants. Resolution on the Executive Committee report. Resolution on the workers’ and peasants’ government. Resolution on the Hamburg Congress. Resolution on the Russian-British conflict. Resolution on Communists’ attitude to religion. Regarding the murder of Comrade Vorovsky. Resolution on the Japanese question (Katayama). Resolution on fascism. Resolution on the trade-union question. Report from Cooperatives Commission (Hoernle). Resolution on the cooperatives question. Report from Italian Commission (Lunacharsky). Resolution on the Italian question. Resolution on the Swiss question. Resolution on the Austrian question. Report from commission on the woman question (Zetkin). Report from Dutch Commission (Trachtenberg). British Commission. Conference of Blacks. Resolution on the Fifth World Congress. Re-election of the Presidium. Greetings and thanks. Closing address (Zinoviev).
Chronology Glossary Bibliography Index


All interested in the history of the world Communist movement under Lenin. For both general audiences and specialists; for both academic and general libraries.