The Kazakh Khanates between the Russian and Qing Empires

Central Eurasian International Relations during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries


Author: Jin Noda
In The Kazakh Khanates between the Russian and Qing Empires, Jin Noda examines the foreign relations of the Kazakh Chinggisid sultans and the Russian and Qing empires during the 18th and 19th centuries. Noda makes use of both Russian and Qing archival documents as well as local Islamic sources. Through analysis of each party’s claims –mainly reflected in the Russian-Qing negotiations regarding Central Eurasia–, the book describes the role played by the Kazakh nomads in tying together the three regions of eastern Kazakh steppe, Western Siberia, and Xinjiang.

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Jin Noda, Ph.D. is Associate Professor at the Waseda Insitute for Advanced Study, Tokyo, Japan. He has published many works on the history of Central Eurasia, including A Collection of Documents from the Kazakh Sultans to the Qing Dynasty (2010).
Notes on Transliteration and Sources
List of Illustrations

Preface: The Kazakh Khanates’ Place within the Central Eurasian World
The History of the Kazakh Steppe and the Kazakh Khanates
Themes to Be Addressed
Methodology and Significance
Outline of Content
Description of Historical Sources

Part One: The ‘Kazakh Khanates’ and the History of the International Relations in Central Asia

1 Reexamining the Kazakh Khanates’ ‘Foreign Relations in the East’
A History of Research Regarding the Kazakh Khanates
A History of Research Regarding the Kazakh-Qing Connection
Historical Relations between the Kazakh Steppe and Xinjiang: An analysis based on accounts in Tavārīḫ-i Ḫamsa-yi Šarqī, written by the Tatar imam Qurbān ‘Alī

2 The Impact of Russian Advances into Central Asia on Kazakh-Russian Relations
The Petition for Russian Subject Status and an Oath on the Quran
The Kazakh Title of “Khan”
Establishment of the 1822 Regulation within the Middle Juz

Part Two: The Foundations of Kazakh-Qing Relations

3 The Problem of Kazakh Subjection and the Russian-Qing Relationship in Central Asia
The Jungars and Central Asia within Russian-Qing Relations
The Toši Mission’s Proposals (1731) and Russia-Qing Negotiations
The Russian-Qing Negotiations of 1756–1758 Regarding Central Asia

4 The Differing Nature of the Three Kazakh Juz and the Three “Bu” (Sections) Mentioned in Qing Historical Sources
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Kazakh Social Structure as Described within Qing Historical Sources
The Meaning of the Term “Hasake” within Qing Historical Records
Relations between the three Kazakh Juz and the Qing Empire
The Three Sections in the View of the Kazakhs

5 Titles of Kazakh Sultans Bestowed by the Qing Empire: The 1824 Case of Sultan Ghubaidulla
Qing Titles for the Kazakhs
Sultan Ghubaidulla and his Han Title
Titles for Kazakhs Thereafter

Part Three: Russo-Qing Relations and the Fate of the Kazakh Khanates

6 Kazakh Participation in the Russo-Chinese Trade of Central Asia
The Kyakhta Trade and Russo-Qing Trade throughout Western Siberia
Russian and Qing Trading Policies
Intermediary Role of the Kazakhs in Russo-Qing Trade
Changes in the Structure of Trade

7 The Transformation of the Russian-Qing Relationship and the Dissolution of the Kazakh Khanates
Frontier Rule by the Two Empires: The Western Siberian Governor-General and the Ili Military Governor
The Role of the Kazakh Steppe within Russian-Qing Relations
The Sultans in Transition
Friction Regarding the Annexation of the Great Juz and Establishment of the 1851 Treaty of Commerce between Russia and the Qing Dynasty


List of Chinese Characters

Those interested in the history of Central Asia, especially Kazakhstan; historians of the Russian and Qing empires and their foreign relations.