The 1624 Tumult of Mexico in Perspective Angela Ballone offers, for the first time, a comprehensive study of an understudied period of Mexican early modern history. By looking at the mandates of three viceroys who, to varying degrees, participated in the events surrounding the Tumult, the book discusses royal authority from a transatlantic perspective that encompasses both sides of the Iberian Atlantic. Considering the similarities and tensions that coexisted in the Iberian Atlantic, Ballone offers a thorough reassessment of current historiography on the Tumult proving that, despite the conflicts and arguments underlying the disturbances, there was never any intention to do away with the king’s authority in New Spain.
Angela Ballone, Ph.D. (2012), University of Liverpool, works as a Researcher at the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History of Frankfurt am Main. Previously, she has been Fellow at the Deutsches Historisches Institut in Rome (2016) and the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa (2014–2015). She is currently working on the project ‘Translating Solórzano from Within’ on the jurist Juan de Solórzano Pereira (1575–1655).
Table of contents
General Editor’s Foreword Acknowledgements List of Illustrations Abbreviations Transcription System The Tumult in Brief
Introduction The Scale of the Mexican Disturbances Royal Authority as a Tool of Integration in the Iberian Atlantic Historiographical Approaches to the Tumult of 1624
Rethinking the Tumult in Perspective
Theatre of the Disturbances Windows onto the Iberian Atlantic World Metropolis of the New World The Composite Nature of Mexican Urban Population The Broad Urban Scenario Royal Authority in Flesh and Blood
Pre-Dating the Tumult The Mexican Audiencia at the Time of Guadalcazar Guadalcazar: el Buen Rey or a Despotic Viceroy? Historiography on Guadalcazar’s Mandates From Mexico to Lima The Logistics of Communication in the Iberian Atlantic
A Viceroy in an Age of Decline Royal Appointment by Philip III Gelves’s First Entry in Mexico City First Impressions in the New World Positive Feedback to the Council Reforming Local Custom and Patronising Municipal Institutions Supervising the Administration of Justice The First Arrest of Oidor Vergara Gaviria Old World Casuistry and New Instructions from Spain
The Two Heads of the Viceroyalty The Administration of the Faith: A Sensitive Topic Idyll between Archbishop and Viceroy Deterioration of the Varaez Case Two Majesties in Conflict Juntas in Spanish America Authority from Theory to Practice The Cathedral of Mexico and the Scale of Conflicts New Year and the Eve of the Tumult The Beginning of the End Reactions to the Exile
Storming the Viceregal Palace Royal Authority Performed in the Mexican Zócalo The King Arrested and the Pope Exiled Sacred Objects in the Battlefield A Heretic Viceroy in Mexico City? ‘Long Live to the King and Death to Heretics!’ The Insurgents’ Requests From Fire to Firearms The Regency The Viceroy is Missing The Tumult is Over Who were These Insurgents Anyway?
The Long Road to Resolution
The Day After Comuneros of New Spain? The Pillage of the Palace ‘No God, nor King, nor Judges!’ The Mexican Delegation The Viceroy Besieged Justice and Power Performed by the Audiencia Sparkling the Transatlantic Debate A New Viceroy in an Age of Crisis Restoration of Viceregal Authority Two Viceroys, Two Schools of Politics The Archbishop of Mexico in Europe
Tools of Control from the Metropolitan Court Preparations for the General Inspection The Beginning of the Inspection Gelves’s Judicial Examination Viceroys’ Authority above Everything Else The Second Arrest of Oidor Vergara Gaviria Mexico City under Pressure Again The End of Gelves’s Juicio de Residencia (in Mexico) Unsettling Metropolitan Considerations about the Inspection
From the Inspection to the General Pardon Another Extraordinary Junta at the Court of Philip IV The Mexican Pardon in Perspective The New Archbishop of Mexico Restoration of Religious Authority The Edict of the Pardon The New Inspection Different Interpretations of the Pardon More Tensions in Mexico City The Resilience of the Gelvista Party
Metropolitan Déjà Vu Two Heads in Opposition, Again ‘There is Only One Viceroy in New Spain!’ Assessing the Junta del Tumulto de México The Members of the Junta The Hidden ‘Life’ of the Junta del Tumulto An Ongoing Discussion outside the Junta Rethinking Metropolitan Perceptions of Mexican Politics The Viceroys’ Sentences
Appendix: A Fructibus Eorum Cognoscentis Eos (México, 1629) Glossary Select Bibliography Index
All those interested in the history of the early modern Iberian Atlantic, the 1624 Tumult of Mexico, Viceregal and Court Studies, techniques of conflict resolution and Imperial Spain.