Scent from the Garden of Paradise. Musk and the Medieval Islamic World

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Author: Anya H. King
Since antiquity, musk has been a valued perfume and medicine. Because the musk deer only lives in Central Eurasia, people in other locations had to trade for its musk. For medieval Islamic civilization, musk became the most important of all aromatics. The musk trade thus illuminates the nature of medieval Asian trade and musk's cultural effects on the Islamic world. Scent from the Garden of Paradise: Musk and the Medieval Islamic World examines the history of musk from its origins in Asia to its uses in the medieval Middle East, surveys the Islamic literature on musk, and discusses the roles of musk in perfumery and medicine, as well as the symbolic importance of musk in Islam.

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Anya H. King, Ph.D. (2007), Indiana University, is Associate Professor of History at the University of Southern Indiana. She publishes on medieval Islamic trade with Asia.
"Kitapta istifade edilen kaynaklar gerçekten etkileyici. Her ne kadar kitapta istifade edilen kaynak malzemelerin büyük çoğunluğu Arapça olsa da, Pehlevice, Klasik Farsça, Süryanice, Çince, Sanskritçe, Eski Türkçe, Tibet dili, Yunanca ve Latince de istifade edilen diller arasında.
Birçoğu birincil kaynak olan eserlerden yapılan alıntılarda ilk önce o dilin modern bilimdeki transliterasyon kurallarına göre yazılmış bir çevriyazı ve altında da İngilizce tercümesi yer alıyor. Ayrıca kitapta istifade edilen kaynakların kendisi de çok ilginç. İstifade edilen belgeler arasında arkeolojik kazılarda bulunmuş tüccar mektupları, seyahatnameler, kitap sanatlarına dair eserler, sözlükler, şiir kitapları, yemek kitapları, kimya eserleri, tıp kitapları, coğrafya eserleri, cevahirnameler, hisbe kılavuzları, zooloji kitapları, botanik eserleri, tarih kitapları gibi çok geniş yelpazede eserler bulunuyor. Bu yönüyle eser, bu tarz bir araştırmanın nasıl yapılması ve yazılması gerektiğine dair harika bir örnek. Kitap, sadece bir nesne veya ürün üzerinden öncelikle Ortaçağ İslam dünyasının adeta bir kesitini oluşturuyor. Böylelikle genel okuyucu sadece misk hakkında değil, İslam medeniyetinde farklı alanlarda kaleme alınmış bu ilginç kaynaklar hakkında da bilgi sahibi oluyor."
Hüseyin Şen, Yeni Şafak, 13 Eylül 2017.
Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1: About Musk and Its Terminology
Musk and Its Origin
Exploitation of Musk
Terminology for Musk

Chapter 2: Commodities of Further Asia in the Islamic World
Introduction
Central Eurasia
China
India
Southeast Asia
Place of Origin, “Brand”, and Rank
The Impact of Commodity Knowledge in Adab
Conclusion

Chapter 3: History of Musk and the Musk Trade: From Asia to the Near East
Introduction
Musk in China
Musk in India
Musk in Tibet
Musk in Central Asia
Aromatics in the Persian World
Musk and Aromatics in Sasanian Persia
The Westward Spread of Musk in Antiquity
Conclusion

Chapter 4: Islamicate Knowledge of Musk and Musk-Producing Lands
Arabic Terminology relating to Musk
Persian Terminology for Musk
Sources of Musk: Middle Eastern Knowledge of the Geography of the Musk Producing Lands and the Origins of Musk
Toponyms and Sources
The Islamicate Understanding of the Production of Musk
Conclusion

Chapter 5: The Merchant World and the Musk Trade
Musk Producers and the Trade
Tribute and Royal Gift-Giving
Routes and Emporiums
Merchants
Data on the Commerce in Musk
Perfumers and Pharmacists
Adulteration and Imitation of Musk
Conclusion

Chapter 6: Musk in Daily Life in the Early Medieval Islamic World
Introduction
Arabic and Persian Perfumes
Incense
Unguents
Scented Powders
Oils and Waters
Musk and Men
Musk and Women
Musk and Medicine: Pharmaceutical Specifications of Musk
Pharmaceutical Applications of Musk
Musk in Food and Drink
Conclusion

Chapter 7: The Symbolic Importance of Musk in Islamic Culture
The Primacy of Musk among Aromatics in Islamic Culture
Symbolic Meanings of Musk in Medieval Islamic Culture
Musk and Kingship
Musk and Islam
Musk and the Garden

Conclusion
Bibliography



List of Illustrations

Illustration 1. Musk deer.
Illustration 2. The musk apparatus.
Illustration 3. Musk pods.
Primarily scholars of Islamic history and its eastern connections, and secondarily scholars of the history of aromatics, perfumery, and commodity history.