Ownership Paradigms in American Civil Law Jurisdictions

Manifestations of the Shifts in the Legislation of Louisiana, Chile, and Argentina (16th-20th Centuries)

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In Ownership Paradigms in American Civil Law Jurisdictions Agustín Parise assists in identifying the transformations experienced in the legislation dealing with ownership in the Americas, thereby showing that current understandings are not uncontested dogmas.
This book is the result of research undertaken on both sides of the Atlantic, and covers the 16th to 20th centuries. Agustín Parise offers readers a journey across time and space, by studying three American civil law jurisdictions in three successive time periods. His book first highlights the added value that comparative legal historical studies may bring to Europe and the Americas. It then addresses, in chronological order, the three ownership paradigms (i.e., Allocation, Liberal, and Social Function) that he claims have developed in the Americas.
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Biographical Note

Agustín Parise, Ph.D. (2015) Maastricht University, LL.D. (2010) Universidad de Buenos Aires, is Assistant Professor of Law at the Faculty of Law of Maastricht University. He has published monographs and articles on comparative law and legal history, including Historia de la Codificación Civil del Estado de Luisiana y su Influencia en el Código Civil Argentino (Eudeba, 2013).

Table of contents

Acknowledgments ... xi
List of Illustrations ... xiii

1 Introduction ... 1
1.1 Motivation ... 1
1.2 Problematization ... 2
1.3 Research Questions ... 4
1.4 Conceptualizations ... 5
1.4.1 American Civil Law Jurisdictions ... 5
1.4.2 Ownership Paradigms ... 8
1.5 Methodology ... 13
1.5.1 Louisiana as a Hard Case for American Civil Law Jurisdictions ... 18
1.6 Sources ... 21
1.7 Structure ... 24

2 The Value of Comparative Legal History for American Civil Law Jurisdictions ... 25
2.1 Introduction ... 25
2.2 Construction ... 27
2.2.1 Building Blocks ... 27
2.2.2 Autonomous Discipline ... 29
2.3 Development ... 34
2.3.1 Emergence ... 35
2.3.2 Conditions ... 44
2.3.3 Benefits ... 48
2.3.4 Corollary ... 50
2.4 Impact on Transplantation ... 51
2.5 Closing Remarks ... 53

3 The Allocation Paradigm of Ownership in American Civil Law Jurisdictions ... 56
3.1 Introduction ... 56
3.2 Native American Land Relations ... 57
3.2.1 America as a Mosaic of Different Legal Systems ... 58
3.2.2 Louisiana, Chile, and Argentina within the Mosaic ... 61
3.2.3 Corollary ... 63
3.3 Spanish Access to Lands in the Americas ... 63
3.3.1 Territories as Royal Holdings of Castile ... 64
3.3.2 Louisiana, Chile, and Argentina as Royal Holdings of Castile ... 71
3.3.3 Corollary ... 73
3.4 Indiano Legal Order ... 73
3.4.1 Castilian Precepts as Models for the Americas ... 75
3.4.2 Corpus Iuris Indiarum: Legislative Enactments and Doctrine ... 79
3.4.3 Louisiana, Chile, and Argentina within the Indiano Legal Order ... 82
3.4.4 Corollary ... 84
3.5 Allocating Multiple Interests ... 84
3.5.1 Crown of Castile ... 88
3.5.2 Roman Catholic Church 91
3.5.3 Native American Groups 93
3.5.4 Corollary ... 94
3.6 Individual Allocation ... 95
3.6.1 Transplantation of the Royal Land Grants System ... 96
3.6.2 Implementation of Royal Land Grants (Argentine Illustration) ... 98
3.6.3 Royal Land Grants in Louisiana and Chile ... 104
3.6.4 Corollary ... 108
3.7 Communal Allocation ... 109
3.7.1 Comunales and Propios: Origins and Implementation ... 110
3.7.2 Communal Property in European Settlements ... 113
3.7.3 Communal Property in Native American Towns ... 115
3.7.4 Communal Property in Louisiana, Chile, and Argentina ... 121
3.7.5 Corollary ... 124
3.8 Closing Remarks ... 125

4 The Liberal Paradigm of Ownership in American Civil Law Jurisdictions ... 129
4.1 Introduction ... 129
4.2 Emergence of First-Generation Codes ... 131
4.2.1 Studies on Comparative Legislation ... 132
4.3 First-Generation Codes across the Americas ... 137
4.3.1 Louisiana ... 139
4.3.2 Chile ... 140
4.3.3 Argentina ... 142
4.4 Codifying the Liberal Paradigm of Ownership ... 144
4.4.1 Origins ... 144
4.4.2 Formal Sources ... 147
4.4.3 Transplantation and Development of Common Sources ... 153
4.5 Encapsulation of the New Paradigm across the Americas ... 154
4.5.1 Louisiana ... 155
4.5.2 Chile ... 161
4.5.3 Argentina ... 166
4.6 Pollination of Ownership in the Americas ... 173
4.6.1 Pollination from Louisiana ... 174
4.6.2 Pollination from Chile ... 177
4.6.3 Pollination from Argentina ... 179
4.7 Introduction to Second-Generation Codes ... 180
4.8 Closing Remarks ... 182

5 The Social Function Paradigm of Ownership in American Civil Law Jurisdictions ... 184
5.1 Introduction ... 184
5.2 Social Function Understanding ... 185
5.2.1 Global Emergence ... 185
5.2.2 Social Doctrine of the Church ... 189
5.2.3 Duguit: The Paladin of the Social Function Paradigm ... 192
5.2.4 Corollary ... 198
5.3 Reception in Constitutions ... 199
5.3.1 American Origins: Social Constitutionalism in Mexico ... 200
5.3.2 European Origins: Social Constitutionalism in Germany ... 202
5.3.3 Global Contagion of Constitutions ... 203
5.3.4 Louisiana ... 205
5.3.5 Chile ... 208
5.3.6 Argentina ... 213
5.4 Reception in Civil Codes ... 218
5.4.1 Momentum in Second-generation Civil Codes ... 219
5.4.2 Doctrine of Abuse of Rights ... 221
5.4.3 Louisiana ... 223
5.4.4 Chile ... 228
5.4.5 Argentina ... 232
5.5 Reception in Special Legislation ... 238
5.5.1 Land Reform ... 239
5.5.2 Louisiana ... 244
5.5.3 Chile ... 248
5.5.4 Argentina ... 256
5.6 Closing Remarks ... 260

6 Conclusions ... 263
6.1 Presentation ... 263
6.2 Central Conclusions ... 263
6.2.1 Visualizing Paradigms and Shifts ... 264
6.2.2 Circulation of Ideas and Paradigm Flows ... 266
6.2.3 Contagious Evolution across Time and Space ... 267
6.2.4 Transplantation of Vernacular and Foreign Legal Sources ... 267
6.3 Peripheral Conclusions ... 268
6.3.1 Disciplinary Value of Comparative Legal History ... 269
6.3.2 Quality of Existing Output ... 269
6.3.3 Transatlantic Circulation ... 270
6.3.4 Global Undertakings ... 270
6.4 Areas of Future Research ... 271
6.4.1 Additional Sources of Law and Ownership Paradigms ... 271
6.4.2 Ecological Function of Ownership ... 272
6.4.3 Global Context for Ownership Paradigms ... 272
6.5 Finale ... 273

List of References ... 275
Index of Names ... 376

Readership

All interested in the history of property law in the civil law jurisdictions of the Americas, in particular legal historians specialised in the transatlantic transfer of legal ideas.

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