From 1957 onwards, the
Pugwash Conferences brought together elite scientists from across ideological and political divides to work towards disarmament. Through a series of national case studies - Austria, China, Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany, the US and USSR – this volume offers a critical reassessment of the development and work of “Pugwash” nationally, internationally, and as a transnational forum for Track II diplomacy. This major new collection of work reveals the difficulties that Pugwash scientists encountered as they sought to reach across the blocs, create a channel for East-West dialogue and realize on the project’s founding aim of influencing state actors. Uniquely, the book affords a sense of the contingent and contested process by which the network-like organization took shape around the conferences.
Contributors are Gordon Barrett, Matthew Evangelista, Silke Fengler, Alison Kraft, Fabian Lüscher, Doubravka Olšáková, Geoffrey Roberts, Paul Rubinson, and Carola Sachse.
Alison Kraft is a historian of science in the twentieth century. She has published widely on the history of the life sciences, including the development of stem cell biology, and on the changing relationship between physics, biology and medicine, focusing on radiological themes/technologies.
Carola Sachse is full professor (em.) for contemporary history at the University of Vienna and guest researcher at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science (Berlin). Currently she is working on the history of the Max Planck Society in international relations.
Table of contents
Note on Contributors
1. Pugwash: Vision, Rhetoric, Realities
Alison Kraft and Carola Sachse
I. FOUNDING A TRANSNATIONAL NETWORK OF CONCERNED SCIENTISTS IN A BIPOLAR WORLD
2. Science, Peace and Internationalism: Frédéric Joliot-Curie, the World Federation of Scientific Workers and the Origins of the Pugwash Movement
3. Patronage Impossible: Cyrus Eaton and His Pugwash Scientists
II. PUGWASH AND THE SUPERPOWERS
4. Party, Peers, Publicity: Overlapping Loyalties in Early Soviet Pugwash, 1955–1960
5. American Scientists in “Communist Conclaves:” Pugwash and Anti-Communism in the United States
6. Minding the Gap: Zhou Peiyuan, Dorothy Hodgkin, and the Durability of Sino-Pugwash Networks
III. PUGWASH AT THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN FRONTIER
7. “Salonbolschewiken:” Pugwash in Austria, 1955-1965
Silke Fengler 8. Czechoslovak Ambitions and Soviet Politics in Eastern Europe: Pugwash and the World Federation of Scientific Workers in the 1950s and 1960s
Doubravka Olšáková 9. Confronting the “German Problem:” Pugwash in West and East Germany, 1957-1964
10. Blurring the Borders of a New Discipline: The Achievements and Prospects of Pugwash History
This book is important for everyone interested in the global Cold War, and for who wish to understand the intersection between science, politics, diplomacy and policy-making in the nuclear realm.