Islam and Gender in Colonial Northeast Africa, Silvia Bruzzi provides an account of Islamic movements and gender dynamics in the context of colonial rule in Northeast Africa. The thread that runs through the book is the life and times of Sittī ‘Alawiyya al-Mīrġanī (1892-1940), a representative of a well-established transnational Sufi order in the Red Sea region. Silvia Bruzzi gives us not only a social history of the colonial encounter in the Eritrean colony, but also a wider historical account of supra-regional dynamics across the Red Sea, the Ethiopian hinterland, and the Mediterranean region, using a wide range of fragmentary historical materials to make an important contribution towards filling the gap that currently exists in women's and gender history in Muslim societies.
Silvia Bruzzi, (PhD 2011) is a Researcher at the Chaire d'Études Africaines Comparées (EGE Rabat). She was formerly a research fellow at the Institut Émilie du Châtelet and a visiting researcher at the Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Bergen. She has also taught African and Middle Eastern History at the University of Bologna, the University of Padova and the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS – Paris). She specialises in Islam and gender in the colonial context.
Table of contents
Acknowledgements List of Illustrations A Note on Transliteration and Dates Transliteration List Introduction Sufism, Colonialism and Gender Dynamics
Sufism and the Female Body
Islamic Renewal Movements, Colonial Occupation, and the Ḫatmiyya in the Red Sea Region Islam and the Idrīsī Tradition in Northeast Africa
The Establishment of the Ḫatmiyya in the Red Sea Region
Sufis at the Crossroads: Regional Conflicts and Colonial Penetration The Ḫatmiyya up against the Sudanese Mahdī
A Marriage Alliance between the Mīrġanī and the Beni ʿAmer People
Sīdī Hāšim: Spy or walī ?
Islam, Gender and Leadership Female Heirs by Blood Alone: A Power Vacuum?
Women and Heresy in Sufi Centres
Embodying Religious Orthodoxy
Fragmented, (In)Visible and (Un)Told Stories Looking for Muslim Women in Northeast African History
Regional Women’s Centres of Empowerment and Religious Learning
Baraka, Itinerant Preaching and the Mobility of Pious Women
Sufi Women’s “Fantasy”, Performances and Fashion Imagination and Desire in Women’s Bodies
Women’s Fantasia in Sufi Regional Centres
Visiting a Fashionable, Cosmopolitan Woman
Growing Visibility in the Political Arena Women’s Bodies, Photography, and Colonialism
Growing Popularity Broadcast through Visual Media
Visibility, Visuality and Power in Portraits of the Šarīfa
Marvels, Charisma and Modernity Performed and Contested Karāmāt
Modern Enchantment: Colonial Technologies and Infrastructures
Military Bodies: Askaris, Officials and “the Female Warrior” Religious Intermediaries and Regional Networks
Enlisting Askaris and Colonial Propaganda
The Defeat of Italy
A Female Icon of Muslim “Emancipation” for the Conquest of Ethiopia (1936–1941) Building Mosques: Muslim Policies from Libya to Ethiopia
A Female Icon of Muslim “Emancipation”
The Mosques Built in Honour of Sittī ʿAlawiyya
Muslim Attitudes towards the Italian Occupation: From Collaboration to Agency
Conclusion: Sufi Memories Women’s Embodied Archives and Spirit Possession
Embodying Sittī ʿAlawiyya’s Visit to Harar
Sufi Visions and Historical Imagination
All interested in the social history of colonial Africa, the study of Islamic movements, and the broader subject of gender and religion.