Animal experimentation has been one of the most controversial areas of animal use, mainly due to the intentional harms inflicted upon animals for the sake of hoped-for benefits in humans. Despite this rationale for continued animal experimentation, shortcomings of this practice have become increasingly more apparent and well-documented. However, these limitations are not yet widely known or appreciated, and there is a danger that they may simply be ignored. The 51 experts who have contributed to Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change critically review current animal use in science, present new and innovative non-animal approaches to address urgent scientific questions, and offer a roadmap towards an animal-free world of science.
Kathrin Herrmann is a veterinarian and expert for animal welfare science, ethics and law with focus on the 3Rs of animal experimentation. She currently works for the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) at Johns Hopkins University, MD, USA.
Kimberley Jayne, PhD, has over a decade of research and educator experience working to enhance the welfare of animals in laboratory and entertainment environments. She now works in animal protection, using her experience to end the use of animals in these industries.
Peter Singer Preface
Kathrin Herrmann and Kimberley Jayne Acknowledgement
Notes on Contributors
Kathrin Herrmann and Kimberley Jayne
Part 1: Why and How to Shift the Paradigm
1 Refinement on the Way Towards Replacement: Are We Doing What We Can?
Kathrin Herrmann 2 How to Evaluate the Science of Non-human Animal Use in Biomedical Research and Testing: A Proposed Format for Debate
Ray Greek and Lisa A. Kramer 3 How Can the Final Goal of Completely Replacing Animal Procedures Successfully be Achieved?
Christiane Baumgartl-Simons and Christiane Hohensee 4 Disease Prevention with a Plant-based Lifestyle
Part 2: Politics and Legislation of Animal Experimentation
5 Political Campaigning: Where Scientific and Ethical Arguments Meet Public Policy
Emily McIvor 6 Rethinking the 3Rs: From Whitewashing to Rights
Charlotte E. Blattner 7 Contesting Animal Experiments through Ethics and Epistemology: In Defense of a Political Critique of Animal Experimentation
Part 3: Openness in Animal Experimentation
8 The Moral Status of Animal Research Subjects in Industry: A Stakeholder Analysis
Sarah Kenehan 9 Increasing the Transparency of Animal Experimentation: An Australian Perspective
Monika Merkes and Rob Buttrose 10 Wasted Money in United States Biomedical and Agricultural Animal Research
Part 4: The Ethics and Philosophy of Animal Experimentation
11 Ethics, Efficacy, and Decision-making in Animal Research
Lawrence A. Hansen and Kori Ann Kosberg 12 Beyond Plausibility Checks: A Case for Moral Doubt in Review Processes of Animal Experimentation
Mara-Daria Cojocaru and Philipp von Gall 13 Human Wrongs in Animal Research: A Focus on Moral Injury and Reification
Jane Johnson and Anna Smajdor
Part 5: Effectiveness of the Animal Model
14 Critically Evaluating Animal Research
Andrew Knight 15 Extrapolation of Animal Research Data to Humans: An Analysis of the Evidence
Rebecca Ram 16 Is Animal-based Biomedical Research being Used in Its Original Context?
Constança Carvalho, Daniel Alves, Andrew Knight and Luis Vicente 17 The Scientific Problems with Using Non-human Animals to Predict Human Response to Drugs and Disease
Ray Greek and Lisa A. Kramer 18 Replacing Animal Tests to Improve Safety for Humans
Kathy Archibald, Robert Coleman and Tamara Drake 19 Genetic Modification of Animals: Scientific and Ethical Issues
Jarrod Bailey 20 Animal Research for Alzheimer Disease: Failures of Science and Ethics
John J. Pippin, Sarah E. Cavanaugh and Francesca Pistollato 21 Behavioral Research on Captive Animals: Scientific and Ethical Concerns
Kimberley Jayne and Adam See
Part 6: Animal-free Education and Training
22 Modernizing Biomedical Training: Replacing Live Animal Laboratories with Human Simulation
John Pawlowski, David Feinstein, Marie L. Crandall and Shalin Gala 23 Humane Education: The Tool for Scientific Revolution in Brazil
Vanessa Carli Bones, Rita de Cassia Maria Garcia, Gutemberg Gomes Alves, Rita Leal Paixão, Alexandro Aluísio Rocha, Karynn Capilé and Róber Bachinski
Part 7: The Paradigm Shift: Advanced Animal-free Approaches
24 Recent Developments in Alternatives to Animal Testing
Katy Taylor 25 The Changing Paradigm in Preclinical Toxicology: in vitro and in silico Methods in Liver Toxicity Evaluations
Fozia Noor 26 The Potential of Organ on Chip Technology for Replacing Animal Testing
Malcolm Wilkinson 27 When is an Alternative Not an Alternative? Supporting Progress for Absolute Replacement of Animals in Science
Craig Redmond 28 Research and Testing Without Animals: Where are We Now and Where are We Heading?
Afterword: Evidence Over Interests
John P. Gluck Index
This volume is intended not only for fellow scholars and scientists, but for the interested public, campaigners, students, academics, researchers, regulators and industry.