4QInstruction: Division and Hierarchies


In 4QInstruction: Divisions and Hierarchies, Benjamin Wold challenges the interpretation of 4QInstruction as a deterministic and dualistic composition. In a re-examination of key fragments he offers new reconstructions and translations that indicate 4QInstruction envisaged wisdom available to all humanity, divisions among humankind and communities as the result of individual adherence to wisdom, and a hierarchy of authorities in terms of types of revelation and individual merit.
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Biographical Note

Benjamin Wold, Ph.D. (2004), is Assistant Professor of Ancient Judaism and Christianity at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. He has published several book and multiple articles, including Women, Men, and Angels: The Qumran Wisdom Document Musar leMevin and Its Allusions to Genesis Creation Traditions (Mohr Siebeck, 2005).


Anyone interested in 4QInstruction, ancient Jewish and Christian wisdom literature, revealed wisdom, and textual analysis of Qumran discoveries generally.