4QInstruction: Divisions and Hierarchies


In 4QInstruction: Divisions and Hierarchies, Benjamin Wold challenges the interpretation of 4QInstruction as a deterministic and dualistic composition. In a re-examination of key fragments he offers new reconstructions and translations that indicate 4QInstruction envisaged wisdom available to all humanity, divisions among humankind and communities as the result of individual adherence to wisdom, and a hierarchy of authority as a result of individual merit.

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Biographical Note

Benjamin Wold, Ph.D. (2004), is Assistant Professor of Ancient Judaism and Christianity at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. He has published several books and multiple articles, including Women, Men, and Angels: The Qumran Wisdom Document Musar leMevin and Its Allusions to Genesis Creation Traditions (Mohr Siebeck, 2005).

Table of contents

Acknowledgments Preface
1 Maskîl and Mēvîn  1  First Person Speech  2  Occurrences of משכיל in 4QInstruction  3  Maśkîl in Qumran Discoveries  4  Addressee as Maskîl in 4Q418 81 + 81a Lines 1–14  5  Conclusions
2 Spirit and Flesh  1  “Spirit” and “Flesh”  2  “Spirit” in 4QInstruction  3  Conclusions
3 Torah and Mysteries  1  Evoking Torah? “By the Hand of Moses” in 4Q418 184 and 4Q423 11  2  Allusions to “Torah”  3  Mosaic Torah in Early Jewish Literature  4  Re-written Torah  5  Conclusions
Concluding Remarks
Bibliography Plate Section Index


Anyone interested in 4QInstruction, ancient Jewish and Christian wisdom literature, revealed wisdom, and textual analysis of Qumran discoveries generally.