Internationally leading experts from four continents provide new views and pathways to teacher education and training. How can teachers be effectively and efficiently trained to master the complexity and the process conditions of teaching-learning situations? The chapters as a whole demonstrate that subtle knowledge of the conditions and variables of instructional processes is necessary. They provide new insight into the classroom. But the chapters also stress the necessity of reflection: Teachers have to learn how to judge and justify that knowledge and its use. Reflective behaviour, thus, is seem as the overall goal of teacher education and training The authors are aware that this goal might be classified as “idealistic” and present, therefore, complex examples for successful conducting instructional processes. They open the view on hidden or neglected dimensions of teaching and learning, discuss standards for teacher behaviour, present critical situations together with possible solutions and give hints for the use of technology. Together, these chapters present new perspectives for successful teacher actions and the corresponding preparation for successful instruction.