Mathematics education research has blossomed into many different areas which we can see in the programmes of the ICME conferences as well as in the various survey articles in the Handbooks. However, all of these lines of research are trying to grapple with a common problem, the complexity of the process of learning mathematics. Although our knowledge of the process is more extensive and deeper despite the fragmented nature of research in this area, there is still a need to overcome this fragmentation and to see learning as one process with different aspects. To overcome this fragmentation, this book identifies six themes: (1) mathematics, culture and society, (2) the structure of mathematics and its influence on the learning process, (3) mathematics learning as a cognitive process, (4) mathematics learning as a social process, (5) affective conditions of the mathematics learning process, (6) new technologies and mathematics learning. This book is addressed to all researchers in mathematic education. It gives an orientation and overview by addressing some carefully chosen questions on what is going on and what are the main results and questions what are important books or papers if further information is needed.