General Principles of Law Recognized by Civilized Nations (1922-2018)

The Evolution of the Third Source of International Law Through the Jurisprudence of the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice

In General Principles of Law Recognized by Civilized Nations (1922-2018) Marija Đorđeska offers an account of the origins, theory and practical application of the general principles in the jurisprudence of the Permanent Court of International Justice and International Court of Justice between 1922 and 2018. Are general principles rules of international law? What is their relationship to custom and treaties? What are the types of general principles and where do international courts find them? This monograph answers these and other questions and offers a detailed overview of over 150 general principles identified in the jurisprudence of the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice.

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Marija ĐorđeskaMarija Đorđeska, S.J.D. (2016), The George Washington University is an Associate at Lindeborg Counsellors at Law (UK), admitted to the New York State Bar.
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
List of Figures and Tables
Abbreviations
Explanation of the Latin Terms
Author’s Explanation of the Terms Used
Cases by Court
Treaties and International Materials

Introduction


Part 1: General Principles in Theory



1 Origins of the General Principles
 1.1 History of Article 38 of the PCIJ Statute
 1.2 The Advisory Committee of Jurists’ Debate on Draft Article 35(3)
 1.3 The Novelty of Post-1920 General Principles

2 International Judicial Law-Making and the General Principles
 2.1 International Law-Making and the Court
 2.2 Processes of International Judicial Law-Making: Elevation, Transplantation and Judicial Creation
 2.3 General Principles Ascertained for the International Community and Article 59 of the Court’s Statute
 2.4 States and the Court’s Ascertainment of General Principles
 2.5 General Principles and the Court: A Symbiotic Relationship

3 What A re General Principles? Theory and Conclusions
 3.1 Theory
 3.2 Conclusions on General Principles
  3.2.1 Conclusion 1: General Principles are ‘Principles’ and ‘Rules’
  3.2.2 Conclusion 2: General Principles Are ‘Principles’ and ‘Rules’ of International Law
  3.2.3 Conclusion 3: General Principles Apply to the Entire International Community
  3.2.4 Conclusion 4: General Principles Are Ascertained with the Court’s opinio juris
 3.3 What Are General Principles not?

4 Introducing the ‘Cube’
 4.1 Types of General Principles
  4.1.1 Substantive General Principles
  4.1.2 Procedural General Principles
  4.1.3 Interpretative General Principles
  4.1.4 Exceptions
 4.2 General Principles’ Underpinnings
  4.2.1 Domestic Underpinning
  4.2.2 International Underpinning
  4.2.3 Judicial Underpinning
  4.2.4 Mixed Underpinning
 4.3 Scholarly Attempts to Categorise General Principles

5 The Relationship between General Principles and Other Sources of International Law
 5.1 General Principles as an Independent Source of International Law
  5.1.1 General Principles and Treaties
  5.1.2 General Principles and Customary International Law
  5.1.3 Trend: Customary International Law Instead of General Principles?
 5.2 General Principles Supplement other Sources of International Law
 5.3 General Principles Retain Their Independence When Embodied in Other Sources of International Law
 5.4 Canons of Supersession among the Sources of International Law
  5.4.1 General Principles vs. Treaties
  5.4.2 General Principles vs. Customary International Law
  5.4.3 General Principles vs. General Principles
 5.5 ‘Other Rules’ of International Law?
 5.6 General Principles and Other Source(-Related) Notions
  5.6.1 General Principles vs. jus cogens 182
  5.6.2 General Principles vs. ex aequo et bono
  5.6.3 General Principles vs. Equity


Part 2: General Principles in Practice



6 Research Methodology and Statistics
 6.1 Researching General Principles
  6.1.1 Scholars’ Methodology?
  6.1.2 The Court’s Methodology
  6.1.3 Methodology of the Present Study
 6.2 Statistics
  6.2.1 General Principles’ Recurrence
  6.2.2 Court Categories
  6.2.3 Type
  6.2.4 Underpinning
  6.2.5 Type vs. Underpinning

7 General Principles Ascertained by the Permanent Court of International Justice (1922–1940)
 7.1 Introduction
 7.2 Overview of the PCIJ's Reliance on General Principles
 7.3 Selected Substantive General Principles
  7.3.1 General Principles That Regulate State Conduct
  7.3.2 General Principles That Regulate Non-State Actors
 7.4 Selected Procedural General Principles
  7.4.1 General Principles Related to the Court’s Jurisdiction
  7.4.2 General Principles Related to the Parties’ Standing
  7.4.3 Other Procedural General Principles
 7.5 Selected Interpretative General Principles
  7.5.1 General Principles Specific to Treaty Interpretation
  7.5.2 General Principles Not Specific to Treaty Interpretation
  7.5.3 Other Interpretative General Principles
 7.6 ‘Other Rules’
 7.7 Concluding Observations

8 General Principles Ascertained by the International Court of Justice (1948–2018)
 8.1 Introduction
 8.2 Overview of the ICJ ’s Reliance on General Principles
 8.3 Selected Substantive General Principles
  8.3.1 General Principles Related to the Law of Treaties
  8.3.2 General Principles Related to State Succession
 8.4 Selected Procedural General Principles
  8.4.1 General Principles Related to the Court’s Jurisdiction
  8.4.2 General principles Related to Evidentiary Proceedings
 8.5 Selected Interpretative General Principles
  8.5.1 General Principles Specific to Treaty Interpretation
  8.5.2 General Principles Not Specific to Treaty Interpretation
  8.5.3 General Principles of Good Faith and pacta sunt servanda 317
 8.6 ‘Other Rules’
 8.7 Concluding Observations

9 Case Study: The Evolution of the General Principle of Diplomatic Protection through the Court’s Jurisprudence (1924–2012)
 9.1 Introduction 32
 9.2 Evolution of the Elements of Diplomatic Protection
  9.2.1 Initial Formulation
  9.2.2 General Principle of the Bond of Nationality
  9.2.3 General Principle of the Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies
  9.2.4 Diplomatic Protection and Companies
  9.2.5 Diplomatic Protection and Questions of Reparation
  9.2.6 Diplomatic Protection and International Organisations (i.e., Functional Protection)
 9.3 Concluding Observations

Conclusion


Part 3: Digest of General Principles Ascertained by the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice (1922–2018)



Digest of General Principles Ascertained by the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice (1922–2018)
  1.1 List of General Principles
  1.2 Digest of General Principles Ascertained by the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice (1922–2018)
   I Substantive General Principles
   II Procedural General Principles
   III Interpretative General Principles

Appendices
  Appendix 1: Conclusions on the General Principles
  Appendix 2: Dataset

Bibliography
Indices


All interested in international law, from seasoned academics and practitioners, to government officials and even students; anyone interested in the building blocks of international law, the theory of sources of international law and the historical and current use of general principles by the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice.