The Rhetorical Functions of Scriptural Quotations in Romans

Paul’s Argumentation by Quotations


Quotations from Jewish scriptures play a crucial role in the Letter to the Romans. The Rhetorical Functions of Scriptural Quotations in Romans explores their rhetorical functions in Paul’s argumentation. It offers a careful text-critical analysis of the 51 quotations in Romans, and asks questions such as: does Paul quote accurately according to a wording known to him or does he adapt it himself? Moreover, to what extent does Paul strive to preserve the sense that the quoted words have in their original context? Katja Kujanpää’s approach of combining rhetorical matters with close textual study results in a more comprehensive picture of quotations in Romans than has been previously seen. Thus, the book opens new perspectives on Paul’s argumentation, rhetoric and theological agenda.

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Biographical Note

Katja Kujanpää, Th.D. (2018, University of Helsinki), is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Her article "From Eloquence to Evading Responsibility: The Rhetorical Functions of Quotations in Paul’s Argumentation" was published in the Journal of Biblical Literature (2017).

Table of contents


1 Introduction
 1.1 Research Questions
 1.2 State of Current Research
 1.3 Approach and Methods

2 Righteous God, Sinful Humankind (3:1–20)
 2.1 True God and Human Liar (3:4)
 2.2 Under Sin, As It Is Written (3:10–18)
 2.3 Conclusions

3 Abraham’s Children, Justified by Faith (4:1–25)
 3.1 Reckoning and Not Reckoning (4:3, 7–8)
 3.2 The Promise (4:17–18)
 3.3 Conclusions

4 Sovereign to Elect (9:6–29)
 4.1 Two Sets of Brothers (9:6–13)
 4.2 Mercy and Might (9:14–18)
 4.3 Potter and Clay (9:19–23)
 4.4 The Called Ones (9:24–29)
 4.5 Conclusions

5 The Mystery of Israel’s Unbelief (9:30–10:21)
 5.1 The Stone Who Divides (9:30–33)
 5.2 Competing Scriptural Rationales? (10:1–10)
 5.3 The Lord of All (10:11–13)
 5.4 Preconditions of Faith (10:14–18)
 5.5 A Non-Nation and a Disobedient People (10:19–21)
 5.6 Conclusions

6 Israel and Gentiles in a Divine Plan (11:1–36)
 6.1 The Analogous Remnant (11:1–6)
 6.2 From Blindness to Stumbling (11:8–10)
 6.3 From Stumbling to the Mystery (11:11–24)
 6.4 The Mystery Revealed (11:25–32)
 6.5 The Concluding Doxology (11:33–36)
 6.6 Conclusions

7 Jews and Gentiles Worshipping Together (14:1–15:21)
 7.1 Judgement by the Living Lord (14:11)
 7.2 Christ, an Example for the Community (15:3)
 7.3 Gentiles Praising with Israel (15:9–12)
 7.4 The Scriptural Foundation of Paul’s Mission (15:21)
 7.5 Conclusions

8 Stand-Alone Quotations and Quotation Pairs
 8.1 Connecting Righteousness and Faith (1:17)
 8.2 Hypocrisy and Blasphemy (2:24)
 8.3 The Tenth Commandment, Twice (7:7 and 13:9)
 8.4 “As Sheep for Slaughter” (8:36)
 8.5 Vengeance and Enemies (12:19–20)
 8.6 Conclusions

9 Conclusions
 9.1 Paul’s Use of Quotations Is Characterized by Diversity
 9.2 Paul Actively Tries to Control the “Meaning” of Quotations
 9.3 When Tracing Paul’s Intention, the Interpretive Hints He Offers Should Be Given Priority over the Original Literary Context of the Quotations
 Editions, Translations, and Reference Works
 Other Literature



For all scholars and students interested in Romans, Paul’s use of scriptures, the rhetorical aspects of quotations, or the Septuagint in the New Testament.