Revelations of Ideology: Apocalyptic Class Politics in Early Roman Palestine

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In Revelations of Ideology, G. Anthony Keddie proposes a new theory of the social function of Judaean apocalyptic texts produced in Early Roman Palestine (63 BCE–70 CE). In contrast to evaluations of Jewish and early Christian apocalyptic texts as “literature of the oppressed” or literature of resistance against empire, Keddie demonstrates that scribes produced apocalyptic texts to advance ideologies aimed at self-legitimation. By revealing that their opponents constituted an exploitative class, scribes generated apocalyptic ideologies that situated them in the same exploited class as their constituents. Through careful historical and ideological criticism of the Psalms of Solomon, Parables of Enoch, Testament of Moses, and Q source, Keddie identifies an internally diverse tradition of apocalyptic class rhetoric in late Second Temple Judaism.

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Biographical Note
G. Anthony Keddie, Ph.D. in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2017), University of Texas at Austin, is Assistant Professor of Early Christian History and Literature at the University of British Columbia. He has published articles on Hellenistic Judaism, apocalypticism, and the New Testament
Review Quotes
Acknowledgements
List of Tables
Author’s Note
Abbreviations

Introduction
 1 Summary of this Book

Part 1: Apocalyptic Criticism


1 The Fall of Class and Rise of Empire: Troubling Metanarratives
 1 The Oppression Theory of Apocalypticism
 2 The Decline of the Oppression Theory in Revelation Studies
 3 The Scholarly Resistance Theory and the Appeal to Empire
 4 The Scholarly Resistance Theory and the Apocalyptic Jesus
 5 The Fall of Class and Its Resurrection

2 Apocalyptic Class Politics: A Theoretical Intervention
 1 Apocalypse within Empire
 2 Subjects and Ideologies
 3 Texts, Ideological Mobilization, and the Limits of Utopia
 4 Class and Economic Inequality
 5 Class and Economic Stratification in Early Roman Palestine
 6 The Interdependence of Religion and Class
 7 Apocalyptic Class Rhetoric as Ideological Mobilization
 8 The Social Locations of Apocalyptic Scribes
 9 Summary

Part 2 : Apocalyptic Class Politics


3 Councils and Elites in the Psalms of Solomon
 1 Apocalyptic Ideology in Psalmic Form
 2 Apocalyptic Historiography in the Early Herodian Age
 3 The Making of Class in Psalms of Solomon 4
 4 Psalmic Revelation and the Unmasking of Ideology
 5 Utopian Politics and Scribal Production
 6 Ideological Mobilization and Social Transformation

4 The Ill-Gotten Wealth of Kings and Landowners in the Parables of Enoch
 1 An Enochic Text in Greek?
 2 Apocalyptic Parables as the Revelation of Hidden Wisdom
 3 Rudiments of Apocalyptic Historiography in the Late Herodian Age
 4 The Making of Class in the Parables of Enoch
 5 Enochic Revelation as an Unmasking of Ideology
 6 Utopian Politics and Scribal Production
 7 Ideological Mobilization and Social Transformation

5 Priestly Elites and Provincial Annexation in the Testament of Moses
 1 Between Testament and Apocalypse
 2 Apocalyptic Historiography in the Wake of Provincial Annexation
 3 The Making of Class in Testament of Moses 7:3–10
 4 Mosaic Revelation and the Unmasking of Ideology
 5 Utopian Politics and Scribal Production
 6 Ideological Mobilization and Social Transformation

6 Slaves to Mammon, Pharisees, and Urban Development in the Q Source
 1 Apocalyptic Wisdom in the Q Source
 2 Urban Development in Q’s Apocalyptic Ideology
 3 The Making of Class in the Q Source
 4 The Making of Class in the Woes against the Pharisees
 5 Messianic Revelation and the Unmasking of Ideology
 6 Utopian Politics and Scribal Production
 7 Ideological Mobilization and Social Transformation

Conclusion
 1 Results of this Study
 2 Towards a More Intersectional Approach
 3 Apocalypticism and Revolt

Bibliography
Index of Ancient Sources
Index of Authors
Table of contents
Acknowledgements
List of Tables
Author’s Note
Abbreviations

Introduction
 1 Summary of this Book

Part 1: Apocalyptic Criticism


1 The Fall of Class and Rise of Empire: Troubling Metanarratives
 1 The Oppression Theory of Apocalypticism
 2 The Decline of the Oppression Theory in Revelation Studies
 3 The Scholarly Resistance Theory and the Appeal to Empire
 4 The Scholarly Resistance Theory and the Apocalyptic Jesus
 5 The Fall of Class and Its Resurrection

2 Apocalyptic Class Politics: A Theoretical Intervention
 1 Apocalypse within Empire
 2 Subjects and Ideologies
 3 Texts, Ideological Mobilization, and the Limits of Utopia
 4 Class and Economic Inequality
 5 Class and Economic Stratification in Early Roman Palestine
 6 The Interdependence of Religion and Class
 7 Apocalyptic Class Rhetoric as Ideological Mobilization
 8 The Social Locations of Apocalyptic Scribes
 9 Summary

Part 2 : Apocalyptic Class Politics


3 Councils and Elites in the Psalms of Solomon
 1 Apocalyptic Ideology in Psalmic Form
 2 Apocalyptic Historiography in the Early Herodian Age
 3 The Making of Class in Psalms of Solomon 4
 4 Psalmic Revelation and the Unmasking of Ideology
 5 Utopian Politics and Scribal Production
 6 Ideological Mobilization and Social Transformation

4 The Ill-Gotten Wealth of Kings and Landowners in the Parables of Enoch
 1 An Enochic Text in Greek?
 2 Apocalyptic Parables as the Revelation of Hidden Wisdom
 3 Rudiments of Apocalyptic Historiography in the Late Herodian Age
 4 The Making of Class in the Parables of Enoch
 5 Enochic Revelation as an Unmasking of Ideology
 6 Utopian Politics and Scribal Production
 7 Ideological Mobilization and Social Transformation

5 Priestly Elites and Provincial Annexation in the Testament of Moses
 1 Between Testament and Apocalypse
 2 Apocalyptic Historiography in the Wake of Provincial Annexation
 3 The Making of Class in Testament of Moses 7:3–10
 4 Mosaic Revelation and the Unmasking of Ideology
 5 Utopian Politics and Scribal Production
 6 Ideological Mobilization and Social Transformation

6 Slaves to Mammon, Pharisees, and Urban Development in the Q Source
 1 Apocalyptic Wisdom in the Q Source
 2 Urban Development in Q’s Apocalyptic Ideology
 3 The Making of Class in the Q Source
 4 The Making of Class in the Woes against the Pharisees
 5 Messianic Revelation and the Unmasking of Ideology
 6 Utopian Politics and Scribal Production
 7 Ideological Mobilization and Social Transformation

Conclusion
 1 Results of this Study
 2 Towards a More Intersectional Approach
 3 Apocalypticism and Revolt

Bibliography
Index of Ancient Sources
Index of Authors
Readership
All students and scholars of Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, especially those interested in the pseudepigrapha, apocalypticism, and the social and political history of Early Roman Palestine.
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