The Rephaim

Sons of the Gods


Author: Jonathan Yogev
In The Rephaim: Sons of the Gods, Jonathan Yogev provides a new theory regarding the mysterious characters, known as "Rephaim," in Biblical and ancient Near Eastern literature. The Rephaim are associated with concepts such as death and the afterlife, divinity, healing, giants and monarchy among others. They appear in Ugaritic, Phoenician and Biblical texts, yet it is difficult to pinpoint their exact function and meaning. This study offers a different perspective, along with full texts, detailed epigraphic analysis and commentary for all of the texts that mention the Rephaim, in order to determine their specific importance in societies of the ancient Levant.

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Jonathan Yogev, Ph. D., Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Center for Heritage Science, has published many articles on Ugaritic and Biblical literature and epigraphic studies.
"Für jeden, der sich mit dem Thema künftig beschäftigt, wird kein Weg an dieser Monographie vorbeiführen." - Stefanie Rudolf, in: Theologische Literaturzeitung 147 (2022) 4
List of Figures and Tables
Sigla for Ugaritic and Phoenician Texts

1 Introduction
 About This Study

2 The Ugaritic Evidence
 2.1 Introduction to the Ugaritic Evidence
 2.2 The Rpʾum (KTU 1.20–1.22)
 2.3 The Legend of Aqhatu
 2.4 The Baʿalu Cycle (KTU 1.6)
 2.5 The Story King Kirta (KTU 1.15)
 2.6 A Memorial Service for Niqmaddu (KTU 1.161)
 2.7 A Song for a New King (KTU 1.108)
 2.8 An Incantation (KTU 1.82)
 2.9 A Fragmentary Text (KTU 1.166)
 2.10 Conclusion of the Ugaritic Evidence and the Meaning of the Name “Rephaim”

3 The Phoenician Evidence
 3.1 Introduction to the Phoenician Evidence
 3.2 Belief System and Theophoric Evidence
 3.3 The Tabnit and Eshmunazar Inscriptions (KAI 13 and KAI 14)
 3.4 The Latin/Neo-Punic Bilingual Inscription from El-Amrūni (KAI 117)
 3.5 Three Relevant Cases
 3.6 Conclusion of the Phoenician Evidence

4 The Biblical Evidence
 4.1 Introduction to the Biblical Evidence
 4.2 The Theophoric Evidence
 4.3 Why Are the Rephaim Treated as Negative Characters in the Bible?
 4.4 Two Main Traditions of Living Rephaim in the Chronicles of Israel
 4.5 The Dead Rephaim in Biblical Literature
 4.6 Two Relevant Cases
 4.7 Conclusion of the Biblical Evidence

5 General Conclusions
Hebrew Bibliography
All those interested in Biblical, Ugaritic and Phoenician literature, culture, theology, history and the development of concepts of myth in ancient societies.