A Grammar of Darma provides the first comprehensive description of this Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Uttarakhand, India. The analysis is informed by a functional-typological framework and draws on a corpus of data gathered through elicitation, observation and recordings of natural discourse. Every effort has been made to describe day-to-day language, so whenever possible, illustrative examples are taken from extemporaneous speech and contextualized. Sections of the grammar should appeal widely to scholars interested in South Asia’s languages and cultures, including discussions of the socio-cultural setting, the sound system, morphosyntactic, clause and discourse structure. The grammar’s interlinearized texts and glossary provide a trove of useful information for comparative linguists working on Tibeto-Burman languages and anyone interested in the world’s less-commonly spoken languages.

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Biographical Note

Christina Willis Oko, Ph.D. (2007), University of Texas, Austin, is a researcher specializing in the documentation and description of lesser-studied Tibeto-Burman languages of South Asia. Her work emphasizes the study of natural discourse to understand patterns in language and society.

Table of contents

List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Maps

1 Preliminaries

2 Sound System and Orthography

3 An Acoustic Analysis of Sounds in Darma

4 Morpho˗Phonology

5 Noun Phrases, Nouns, and Nominal Morphology

6 Pronouns and Demonstratives

7 Possession

8 Quantifiers

9 Adjectives, Adjectivals, and Their Modifiers

10 The Structure of the Noun Phrase

11 Verbs and Associated Morphology

12 Constituent Order and Roles Markers (Reprise)

13 Adverbs

14 Discourse Markers

15 Clause and Sentence Structure

16 Combined Clauses

17 Discourse and Texts

Appendix A: Place Names, Language Names, and Other Information

Appendix B: Recordings

Appendix C: Formant Measurements

Appendix D: Glossary


All interested in the languages and cultures of the Himalayas and South Asia, especially those interested in natural discourse, language obsolescence, linguistic typology and comparative studies of Tibeto-Burman languages.