Science educators have come to recognize children’s reasoning and problem solving skills as crucial ingredients of scientific literacy. As a consequence, there has been a concurrent, widespread emphasis on argumentation as a way of developing critical and creative minds. Argumentation has been of increasing interest in science education as a means of actively involving students in science and, thereby, as a means of promoting their learning, reasoning, and problem solving. Many approaches to teaching argumentation place primacy on teaching the structure of the argumentative genre prior to and at the beginning of participating in argumentation. Such an approach, however, is unlikely to succeed because to meaningfully learn the structure (grammar) of argumentation, one already needs to be competent in argumentation. This book offers a different approach to children’s argumentation and reasoning based on dialogical relations, as the origin of internal dialogue (inner speech) and higher psychological functions. In this approach, argumentation first exists as dialogical relation, for participants who are in a dialogical relation with others, and who employ argumentation for the purpose of the dialogical relation. With the multimodality of dialogue, this approach expands argumentation into another level of physicality of thinking, reasoning, and problem solving in classrooms. By using empirical data from elementary classrooms, this book explains how argumentation emerges and develops in and from classroom interactions by focusing on thinking and reasoning through/in relations with others and the learning environment.
Mijung Kim is an associate professor of science education at the University of Alberta. She has published several journal articles and books on inquiry-based teaching, science curriculum and research, including
Issues and Challenges in Science Education Research (Springer, 2012) and
East-Asian Primary Science Curricula (Springer, 2017).
Wolff-Michael Roth is Lansdowne Professor of Applied Cognitive Science at the University of Victoria, Canada. He has published over 60 books and nearly 500 peer-reviewed journal articles. He was awarded many outstanding research awards and received an honorary doctorate (University of Ioannina, Greece).
Preface List of Figures and Tables
Argumentation Research in Science Education Toulmin Argument Patterns
Dialogue and Presumptive Argumentation
Scientific Reasoning through Argumentation
Vygotsky’s Spinozist Perspectives on Language The Real Life of Language
From Meaning to Sense
The Sense-giving Contexture
The Lived World Indicated by the Sign
The System of Signs
Sign-use as an Expressive Act
Sign-use as a Communicative Act
The Communicative Act as Soliciting a Behavior
The In-order-to Motive and the Now, Here, and Thus of the Communicative Act
Children’s Reasoning and Problem Solving The Complexity of Young Children’s Reasoning
What is Evidence?
Evidence in Nested Sense-giving Contexture
Argumentation as Joint Action The Social Nature of the Word
Argumentation and Emergence
Laying the Garden Path in Walking
Individualizing Collective Claims and Evidence
Resolution of Contradictions and Emergence of New Trouble
The Social Nature of Argumentation
The Role of Physical Objects in Science Lessons The Commonness and Difference of Physical Objects
Abstraction: What is Happening in the Real Event?
Physical Objects that Contribute to the Making of Sense
Learning with Physical Objects
Argumentation and Inscriptions A Lesson Fragment
From Explaining an Observation to Warranting a Claim
Inscriptions in the Establishment of a Warrant
Opportunities Arising from Working on the Chalkboard
Argumentation and the Thinking Body Position and Disposition
Thinking and Speech
Unity/Identity of Body and Mind
On Overcoming the Psychophysical Problem
Teaching Argumentation in Elementary Science Attending to the Physicality of Argumentation
Pointing and Formulating
Being a Member of a Problem-Solving Community
All interested in children’s reasoning and argumentation and classroom dialogues in science classrooms including graduate students, educators and researchers in and for elementary science education and teacher education.