Preventing Identity Crime: Identity Theft and Identity Fraud

An Identity Crime Model and Legislative Analysis with Recommendations for Preventing Identity Crime

Author: Syed R. Ahmed
Identity crime, which encompasses both identity theft and identity fraud, is one of the fastest growing crimes around the world, yet it lacks its own identity: there is no universally accepted definition, little understanding of what the crime is or should be, and no legal framework placing the crime into a coherent and effective grouping of criminal sanctions. In this book, Dr. Syed Ahmed addresses and proposes solutions for resolving these issues and tackles head-on the various facets of what is needed to deal with Identity Crime. A comprehensive and an exhaustive study of different types of Identity Crime is conducted and practical recommendations for preventing and minimizing the impact of identity crime is presented for all to consider.

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Dr. Syed Ahmed, LLM (2008) & J.S.D (2014), Thomas Jefferson School of Law, is the founder and chairman of the Identity Crime Prevention Institute, an organization dedicated to victim assistance and developing identity crime prevention solutions around the world.
Preface
Acknowledgements
List of Illustrations

1 The Problem of Identity Crime
2 What is Identity?
Introduction emsp;2.1 When We Say “Identity,” What Do We Mean?
emsp;2.2 Identity – Dictionary Definitions
emsp;2.3 Identity Properties and Attributes
emsp;2.4 Identity – the Psychological View
emsp;2.5 Identity – the Philosophical View
emsp;2.6 Identity – the Legal View
emsp;2.7 Means of Verifying Legal Identity
emsp;2.8 Digital Identity
emsp;2.9 Conclusion
3 Identity Crime Framework and Model: Five Components of Identity Crime and the Different Illegal Methods of Acquiring and Using Identity Information and Documents
Introduction
emsp;3.1 Clarification of Terms: Identity Theft, Identity Fraud, and Identity Crime
emsp;3.2 Goal of Identity Crimes
emsp;3.3 The Identity Crime Framework
emsp;3.4 Identity Crime Framework
emsp;3.5 Five Components of Identity Crime Model
emsp;3.6 Techniques and Strategies Used for Illegal Acquisition
emsp;3.7 Producing and Manipulating Identity Information and Documents
emsp;3.8 Transfer – Identity Trafficking
emsp;3.9 Possession
emsp;3.10 Use – Criminals’ Goals and the Kinds of Crimes They Commit When Using Acquired Information or Documents
emsp;3.11 Conclusion
4 Threat Agents and the Impact of Identity Crime
Introduction
emsp;4.1 Identity Crime Threat Assessment Model and Threat Agent Identification and Analysis
emsp;4.2 The Impact of Identity Crime
emsp;4.3 Costs of Identity Crime by Use
emsp;4.4 Conclusion
5 International Trends in Addressing Identity Crime
Introduction emsp;5.1 International Organizations
emsp;5.2 Conclusion
6 Identity Crime Legislation in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom
emsp;Introduction
emsp;Part A: United States Statutes
emsp;6A.1 Introduction
emsp;6A.2 Identity-Crime-Specific Statutes
emsp;6A.3 Identity-Crime-Related Statutes
emsp;6A.4 Civil Statutes to Prevent Identity Crimes and Recover Identity
emsp;6A.5 State Statutes
emsp;Part B: Canadian Statutes
emsp;6B.1 Introduction
emsp;6B.2 Analysis of Canada’s Identity Crime Statutes and Related Statutes
emsp;6B.3 Criminal Code
emsp;6B.4 Privacy Act
emsp;6B.5 Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
emsp;6B.6 Changes Recommended by Concerned Organizations
emsp;Part C: Australia
emsp;6C.1 Introduction
emsp;6C.2 National Identity Security Strategy
emsp;6C.3 Federal System – State and Territorial Laws
emsp;6C.4 Australian Criminal Code
emsp;6C.5 Financial Transaction Reports Act 1988
emsp;6C.6 Travel Document Offenses
emsp;6C.7 Privacy Act 1988
emsp;6C.8 South Australia’s Identity Crime Provisions
emsp;6C.9 Queensland’s Identity Crime Provisions
emsp;6C.10 New South Wales’ Crimes Act 1900
emsp;6C.11 Tasmania’s Computer Fraud Statute
emsp;Part D: United Kingdom Statutes
emsp;6D.1 Introduction
emsp;6D.2 Analysis of the U.K.’s Identity-Crime-Related Statutes
emsp;6D.3 Identity Cards Act 2006
emsp;6D.4 Fraud Act 2006
emsp;6D.5 Theft Act 1968
emsp;6D.6 Computer Misuse Act 1990
emsp;6D.7 Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981
emsp;6D.8 Data Protection Act 1998
emsp;6D.9 Conclusion
7 Identity Crime Prevention and Impact Minimization Strategy
Introduction
emsp;7.1 Proposed Approaches to Identity Crime Prevention
emsp;7.2 Developing an International Identity Crime Treaty
emsp;7.3 Developing Identity Information and Documents with Real Time Authentication and Verification
emsp;7.4 Authentication
emsp;7.5 Business Policies
emsp;7.6 Consumer Education
emsp;7.7 Consumer Actions
emsp;7.8 Foundation Documents
emsp;7.9 Medical Identity Crime Prevention
emsp;7.10 Victim Cooperation
emsp;7.11 Offenders
emsp;7.12 Law Enforcement Policies
emsp;7.13 Government Policies
emsp;7.14 Information Sharing
emsp;7.15 International Collaboration and Efforts
emsp;7.16 Public- Private Partnerships
emsp;7.17 Data Protection through Technology
emsp;7.18 Training Programs and Initiatives
emsp;7.19 Meeting the Challenges of Identity Fraud Prevention
emsp;7.20 Evaluating Identity Crime Prevention and Impact Minimization Techniques
emsp;7.21 Conclusion
emsp;7.22 Appendix: Table of Identity Crime Prevention and Impact Minimization Techniques
8 Privacy, Anonymity, and Identity Crime
emsp;Introduction
emsp;8.1 The Identity Crime Privacy Model
emsp;8.2 Fair Information Practices (fip s)
emsp;8.3 Privacy Taxonomies
emsp;8.4 Personally Identifiable Information (pii)
emsp;8.5 Data Mining
emsp;8.6 Privacy-Enhancing Technologies (pet s)
emsp;8.7 Anonymity
emsp;8.8 Anonymization
emsp;8.9 Data Loss and Data Loss Prevention (dlp)
emsp;8.10 The Identity Crime Prevention Model and Privacy by Design
emsp;8.11 Conclusion
9 Convention on Identity Crime
emsp;Introduction
emsp;9.1 Preamble
emsp;9.2 Chapter i – Use of Terms
emsp;9.3 Chapter ii – Measures To Be Taken at the National Level
emsp;9.4 Chapter iii – International Cooperation
emsp;9.5 Chapter iv – Final Provisions
10 Conclusion

Appendix 1: Table of Cases
Appendix 2: Table of Statutes
Bibliography
Index
All interested in understanding what is needed to deal with Identity crime including businesses, legislators, law enforcement agencies, attorneys and all the people around the world targeted by Identity criminals.