Sailing Across the World's Oceans

History & Catalogue of Dutch Charts Printed on Vellum 1580-1725


Authors: Günter Schilder and Hans Kok
Maps printed by commercial Amsterdam charts publishers between the sixteenth and the eighteenth century are spread all around the world. This illustrated cartobibligraphy describes and analyses about 150 charts, mostly found in international institutions. With over 800 full colour illustrations, many full page, it offers an overview of maps from Europe to the Indian and the Atlantic Ocean, the latter commonly called 'West-Indische Paskaerten'.
The first part of the book contains six chapters that investigate the development of Amsterdam as a recognized centre for map production and distribution in Europe. It also discusses navigation techniques used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the developing world image.

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) manuscript charts on vellum are discussed in Sailing for the East (ESHC 10, 2010).

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Günter Schilder (b.1942) studied geography and history at Vienna University from 1960 to 1967. He undertook two years of research in the Netherlands for his dissertation, and in 1970 he received his PhD from Vienna University. From 1971 he worked in the Netherlands at Utrecht University, researching the history of cartography. In 1981 he was appointed Professor of History of Cartography, a position he held until his retirement in 2005. Schilder is the author of numerous publications on the history of Dutch cartography and maritime discoveries, and the founder of the Explokart Research Programme.
Hans D. Kok (b. 1940) completed his secondary education in The Netherlands. He attended the Dutch Government Civil Aviation Flying Training School. Upon completion, he joined KLM- Royal Dutch Airlines, flying and navigating the last series of four-engined propeller planes in intercontinental operation in his initial career. He served in various managerial functions at home and abroad and retired from active flying in 1996 as Captain Boeing 747- 400. His interest in navigation and maps stems from his early days of navigating across oceans and polar areas.

1. Historical Introduction
I Seventeenth century Amsterdam: The ‘Pearl of Europe’
I.1 Amsterdam becomes a metropolis
I.2 Amsterdam as cartographical world centre

II Production and distribution of charts
II.1 General
II.2 Data collection
II.3 Techniques for dissemination of charts
II.4 The preparation of the copperplate
II.5 The difference between etching and engraving
II.6 Transferring the design to the copperplate
II.7 Engraving the plate
II.8 The decorations
II.9 The printing
II.10 Modifications
II.11 The life-cycle of the plates
II.12 The chart size
II.13 Carriers
II.14 Costs and time required
II.15 The colouring
II.16 The sale and distribution of charts

III Navigation to the horizon and beyond
III.1 On history
III.2 On winds
III.3 On water
III.4 On ships and crews
III.5 On coastal charts and surveys
III.6 On long-range plotting charts or trans-oceanic overzeilers
III.6.1 Equal degree or plane charts
III.6.2 Non-equal or central latitude charts
III.6.3 Spherical charts
III.6.4 Mercator-projection charts
III.7 On route selection
III.8 On navigation, problems and technical progress
III.9 On navigation instruments
III.9.1 Limitations
III.9.2 Instruments for the determination of latitude
III.9.3 Instruments for measuring directions
III.9.4 The determination of longitude
III.9.5 Logging speed
III.9.6 Keeping time
III.9.7 Sounding depths with lead and line
III.9.8 Smaller instruments
III.9.9 Assorted spare equipment, globes, manuals, paper charts, tables, almanacs and small spare parts
III.10 On training and examinations and pilot guides
III.11 On daily operation
III.12 Explanatory notes

IV The European coasts
IV.1 Western and Eastern Navigation
IV.2 Dutch cartography of the Mediterranean Sea
IV.3 The European Arctic regions in Dutch cartography
IV.3.1 The Russian North-coast
IV.3.2 The exploration of Novaya Zemlya and Spitsbergen

V The Dutch Atlantic scene
V.1 To farther horizons: Dutch Navigation in the Atlantic Ocean
V.2 The Dutch in the North-West
V.3 A Dutch colony on the Hudson River
V.4 The Dutch in Brazil and West-Indies
V.5 Dutch mapping of the Southern part of South America
V.5.1 The first Dutch fleets through Estrecho de Magallanes
V.5.2 The voyage by Jacob le Maire (1615-1617)
V.5.3 The Nassau Fleet (1623-1626)
V.5.4 Statenland turns into an island

VI The Indian Ocean and Far East
VI.1 The Indian Ocean: Gateway to the Dutch Indies
VI.2 New Holland: the Dutch discoveries
VI.2.1 The first sighting
VI.2.2 Accidental sightings
VI.2.3 Intentional explorations
VI.2.4 Further accidental sightings
VI.2.5 Tasman’s voyages, 1642-1644
VI.2.6 De Vlamingh’s exploration of the West Coast
VI.3 The Dutch Overseas Empire in the Far East

2. Catalogue of Dutch Charts printed on vellum
Explanatory notes for use with the catalogue
Map with addresses of chart makers mentioned in the catalogue
1. Allard, Hugo
2. Blaeu, Willem Jansz.
3. Claesz., Cornelis
4. Cloppenburch, Jan Evertsz.
5. Colom, Jacob Aertsz.
6. Danckerts, Justus
7. Doncker, Hendrick
8. Gerritsz., Hessel
9. Goos, Pieter
10. Jacobsz., Anthonie 11. Janssonius, Johannes
12. Loots, Johannes
13. Pers, Dirck Pietersz.
14. Robijn, Jacobus
15. Van Keulen, Johannes
16. Visscher, Claes Jansz.

List of institutions with charts on vellum
Glossary of terms
Index on personal names
All interested in maps, printed charts on vellum, Amsterdam chart-publishers, navigation techniques, map production and distribution in Europe.