Naval Warfare and Maritime Conflict in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age Mediterranean

Ancient Warfare Series Volume 2

In Naval Warfare and Maritime Conflict in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age Mediterranean, Jeffrey P. Emanuel examines the evidence for maritime violence in the Mediterranean region during both the Late Bronze Age and the tumultuous transition to the Early Iron Age in the years surrounding the turn of the 12th century BCE.

There has traditionally been little differentiation between the methods of armed conflict engaged in during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, on both the coasts and the open seas, while polities have been alternately characterized as legitimate martial actors and as state sponsors of piracy. By utilizing material, documentary, and iconographic evidence and delineating between the many forms of armed conflict, Emanuel provides an up-to-date assessment not only of the nature and frequency of warfare, raiding, piracy, and other forms of maritime conflict in the Late Bronze Age and Late Bronze-Early Iron Age transition, but also of the extent to which modern views about this activity remain the product of inference and speculation.

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Jeffrey P. Emanuel is CHS Fellow in Aegean Archaeology and Prehistory and Associate Director of Academic Technology at Harvard University. He is also the author of Black Ships and Sea Raiders: The Late Bronze-Early Iron Age Context of Odysseus’ Second Cretan Lie (Lexington, 2017).
Contents
Notes on Transliteration and Sigla
List of Figures
Abbreviations

Part 1: Introduction and Theoretical Underpinnings


1 Introduction and Methodology
 1 Connected by Sea: The Mediterranean and Its Coasts in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages
 2 Evidence and Approaches
 3 Structure

2 Warfare and Conflict on the Coasts and the High Sea
 1 Setting the Scene and Defining the Concepts
 2 Economics and Maritime Conflict in the Eastern Mediterranean

Part 2: The Late Bronze Age


3 Naval Aspects of Egyptian Warfare in the Early and Middle 2nd Millennium
 1 Introduction: Martial Maritime Pursuits from Predynastic Egypt to the Beginning of the New Kingdom
 2 A Cretan Connection? Keftiu in Egyptian Harbors and Tombs
 3 Maritime Components of New Kingdom Conflict: The 18th Dynasty
 4 Conclusion

4 The Amarna Letters: Maritime Conflict on the Levantine Coast
 1 Introduction: Coastal Kingdoms and International Communication
 2 Ḫazanni and Warlords: Byblos, Amurru, and Maritime Conflict on the Levantine Coast
 3 Sea Raiders in the Amarna Letters? Arwad and the Miši
 4 Conclusion

5 Ugarit and the Eastern Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age
 1 Introduction: Beyond Amarna
 2 Seasonal Pursuits and Consistent Targets
 3 Ugarit in the Late Bronze Age
 4 Conclusion

6 Maritime Conflict in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Western Anatolia
 1 Maritime Conflict in the Pre-Mycenaean Aegean
 2 Foreign Contacts and Martial Pursuits
 3 Ti҆nꜣyw and the 18th Dynasty Pharaohs
 4 Raiding, Trading, and Assembling a Domestic Labor Force
 5 Text and Iconography in the Mycenaean Aegean
 6 Conclusion

7 19th Dynasty Egypt: Reduction in, and Return of, Seaborne Threats
 1 Introduction: Early Defenses Against Seaborne Raiders
 2 Naval Conflict and New Technology in the Early 19th Dynasty
 3 Coastal Forts and Reduced Threats
 4 The Reign of Merneptaḥ and the Return of Seaborne Threats
 5 Conclusion

Part 3: The End of the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age


8 The End of the Bronze Age and Beginning of the Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean
 1 Introduction: Changes in Society
 2 Egyptian Records and the Late Bronze-Iron Age Transition
 3 Changes in Maritime Technology Reflected in the Medinet Habu Naval Battle
 4 Ḫatti, Cyprus, and Ugarit
 5 Levantine Connections and Discontinuity: Phoenicia, Philistia, and Palastin
 6 Conclusion

9 Transitioning from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in the Aegean and Central Mediterranean
 1 Collapse of the Mycenaean Order
 2 Italy and the Central Mediterranean
 3 Conclusion

10 After the Fall: The Early Iron Age in the Aegean and Central Mediterranean
 1 The Fall of the Mycenean Palaces
 2 Renewed Coastal Prosperity and Continued Martial Pursuits
 3 ‘Warrior Graves’: Representing the New (Maritime?) Aristocracy
 4 An Italian Connection?
 5 The ‘Galley Subculture’ and Continuity of Shipbuilding and Seafaring
 6 Conclusion

11 The Iconography of Maritime Conflict in the Post-Palatial Aegean and Central Mediterranean
 1 New Depictions of Warriors and Warfare
 2 Maritime Iconography in the Post-Palatial Aegean
 3 From Central to Eastern Mediterranean: Urns and (Double) Bird Heads
 4 Conclusion

Part 4: Conclusion


12 Conclusion: The Evidence for Naval Warfare and Maritime Conflict
References
Index
All interested in naval warfare, piracy, and other forms of maritime violence and the impact these had on the Mediterranean world in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age transition.