Textual Developments

Collected Essays, Volume 4


Twenty-eight revised and updated essays on the textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible, the Torah, the (proto-) Masoretic Text, the Septuagint, and the Dead Sea Scrolls originally published between 2010 and 2018 are presented in this fourth volume of the author’s collected essays. These areas have all developed much in modern research, and the author, the past editor-in-chief of the international Dead Sea Scrolls publication project, has been a major speaker in all of them. The topics presented in this volume display some of his emerging interests (the text of the Torah and the proto-MT), including central studies on the development of the text of the Torah, the enigma of the MT, and the Scripture text of the tefillin.

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Biographical Note

Emanuel Tov, Ph.D. (1974), Hebrew University, Jerusalem is J.L. Magnes Professor of Bible emeritus at that University. He has published many monographs on the textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible and Qumran, and was the editor-in-chief of the Dead Sea Scrolls publication project.

Table of contents

Preface Sources Abbreviations and Sources

Part 1 Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible

1 The Textual Base of the Biblical Quotations in Second Temple Compositions
2 Were Early Hebrew Scripture Texts Authoritative?
3 Post-Modern Textual Criticism?
4 The Origins, Development, and Characteristics of the Ancient Translations of the Hebrew Scriptures
5 Modern Editions of the Hebrew Bible
6 Electronic Scripture Editions (With an Appendix Listing Electronic Editions on the Internet [2019])
7 New Editions of the Hebrew Scriptures: A Response

Part 2 Textual Criticism of the Torah

8 Textual History of the Torah
9 Textual Harmonization in Exodus 1–24
10 The Septuagint of Numbers as a Harmonizing Text
11 Textual Harmonization in the Five Books of the Torah: A Summary

Part 3 The (Proto-)Masoretic Text

12 ‘Proto-Masoretic,’ ‘Pre-Masoretic,’ ‘Semi-Masoretic,’ and ‘Masoretic’: A Study in Terminology and Textual Theory
13 The Enigma of the Masoretic Text
14 The Development of the Text of the Torah in Two Major Text Blocks
15 The Source of Source Criticism: The Relevance of Non-Masoretic Textual Witnesses
16 The Socio-Religious Setting of the (Proto-)Masoretic Text
17 Ketiv/Qere Readings in Parallel Texts

Part 4 The Septuagint

18 The Septuagint: Summary and Update
19 The Septuagint Translation of the Torah as a Source and Resource for the Post-Pentateuchal Translators
20 The Shared Tradition of the Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch
21 Moses in the Septuagint
22 The Septuagint in Codex Sinaiticus Compared with Other Sources
23 Assyria in the Septuagint
24 Transliterated Proper Nouns in the Septuagint: Some Statistics

Part 5 The Dead Sea Scrolls

25 The Tefillin from the Judean Desert and the Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible
26 Scribal Characteristics of the Qumran Scrolls
27 Scribal Practices and Approaches Revisited
28 An Early Leviticus Scroll from En-Gedi: Preliminary PublicationEmanuel TovMichael SegalWilliam Brent SealesClifford Seth ParkerPnina ShorYosef Porath
Index of Ancient Sources Index of Authors


All interested in Hebrew Bible, textual criticism, Septuagint, Dead Sea Scrolls, Second Temple literature, literary criticism, Apocrypha, theology, Judaica, the Torah, Masoretic studies, Jewish history, scribal developments.

Index Card