Career Development as a Partner in Nation Building Australia

Origins, History and Foundations for the Future


Author: Wendy Patton
Despite examples of vocational guidance practice being evident in Australia since the mid-1800s, there remains a spasmodic and patchwork approach to practice across the country. For decades it is a field which has been paradoxically boosted and challenged by changing economic and political agendas. Repeated international, national and State reviews emphasise the vital nature of a systemic national approach to career development, however authors repeatedly lament the lack of a sustained focus on career activity as a major national priority.

There is no broad comprehensive historical reckoning of the history of career development theory and practice in Australia since this early period. Career development theory and practice in Australia has been forged in partnership with developments in an international context. In documenting the shared history with other countries, the author significantly adds to the body of knowledge on career development as a field in Australia and internationally. The book provides new understandings about the historical development of this field of knowledge, and in particular the challenging and cyclical nature of its policy history.

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Wendy Patton, PhD (1991), University of Queensland, is Emeritus Professor at Queensland University of Technology and has published extensively in career development theory, research and practice. She is co-creator of the Systems Theory Framework and Founding Editor of the Career Development Series.
Col McCowan OAM Preface
About the Author

Chapter 1: Career Development in Australia: Connecting to an International History
 Vocational Guidance
 Theory Development
 The Status of Career Theory
 Definitions in the Field
 Career Development Terminology
 Career Guidance and Related Terms
 Professional Worker Titles
 Internationalisation – From Sharing, to Growing and Learning

Chapter 2: Vocational Guidance
 Early Beginnings
 Vocational Guidance
 Interwar Summary
 Developments Post WWII
 The Decade of New Direction – 1970S
 Career Service as Represented by Personnel Numbers across the Country
 The Role of the Commonwealth Employment Service (CES) in Vocational Guidance
 CES and Vocational Guidance
 The Beginnings of Change in Career Guidance Service Provision: 1980s–1990s
 Training – Development of the Profession
 Summary 1970s–1990s

Chapter 3: Career Education
 The Beginnings of Career Education
 Theoretical Underpinnings of Career Education
 Definitional Challenges
 Career Education in Australia
 The Career Education Professional – Role and Training
 The 1970s – Summary
 Career Education in Australia – 1980s
 State Summaries of Practice 1970s–1980s – Three Major Reports
 Case Study
 Changing Conceptualisation: Career Education and Counselling
 Summary of 1980s
 Career Education in Australia – 1990s
 Activity in Schools
 Summary through to the End of the 20th Century

Chapter 4: Career Assessment and Career Information
 Background: The Place of Assessment in Vocational Guidance and Career Counselling
 Vocational Assessment – Early Development
 Career Assessment in Australia
 Australian Council For Educational Research (ACER)
 Computer-Assisted Career Guidance (CACG)
 Qualitative Assessment
 Qualitative Assessment in Australia
 Occupational/Career Information in Australia

Chapter 5: Career Counselling
 Development of Career Counselling
 The Need for Change in Career Counselling
 Career Counselling in Australia
 Australian Association of Career Counsellors
 Career Counselling Research in Australia

Chapter 6: Career Development in Post-School Settings
 VET/TAFE Sector
 Review of Career Development Services in Australian Tertiary Institutions (DEEWR, 2008)
 Private Sector
 Summing Up
 Current Situation

Chapter 7: Two Steps Forward, Three Steps Back …
 International Changes in Career Guidance Practice
 Rationale for Career Guidance
 Evidence to Support Career Guidance Outcomes
 Career Guidance and Public Policy: An International Strategy
 International Policy Work at the Beginning of the 21st Century
 Summary: Key Policy Issues
 Australian Policy Context – Towards the 21st Century
 Status of Career Development in Australia – 2002
 The OECD Australia Review
 Learning to Work Report
 Initiatives of the Transition from School Taskforce
 The Australian Blueprint For Career Development
 Three Steps Back
 Opportunity Lost
 National Career Development Strategy – 2012
 National Career Education Strategy – 2016
 International Context in the Second Decade of the Twenty First Century

Chapter 8: Development of a Profession
 The Career Development Professional in Australia
 Training Issues Post WWII
 The Training and Qualifications Picture – 1990s
 Impact of Reviews on Practice in Australia
 The OECD Review – Australia Shares Issues in Training and Status of the Profession
 Oecd Country Review Australia: A Turning Point for Development
 Initiatives Following the OECD Visit
 Australia: National Standards and Accreditation of Career Practitioners
 The Role of Professional Associations
 Where Did the Psychologists Go?
 Current Status of Career Practitioners in Australia

Chapter 9: Contributions to Australia and the International Field
 Professional Associations
 Major Conference Activity
 Course Developers
 Profession/Government Relationships
 Contributions of Australian Theorists, Researchers, and Practitioners
 Australian Journal of Career Development (AJCD)

Chapter 10: Plus ca change, plus c’est la meme chose
 Career Development – Beginning to Now
 The Cycle Repeats
 The Current Situation – Another Era of Reports
 2018 Reports
 Revisiting Rationale for Career Development – Research Evidence
 Effectiveness of Interventions: Research Challenges
 Features of Effective Career Guidance Provision
 Celebrating Excellence
 Future Policy Challenges
 Final Thoughts: What Can We Learn from the Past

This book will be of interest to scholars in career development/ vocational psychology in Australia and internationally, in addition to broader academic fields of psychology, sociology, and applied disciplines such as counselling psychology and social work.