European Small States and the Role of Consuls in the Age of Empire

Author: Aryo Makko
In European Small States and the Role of Consuls in the Age of Empire Aryo Makko argues that Sweden and Norway participated in the New Imperialism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries through consular services. Usually portrayed as nations without an imperial past, Makko demonstrates that their role in the processes of imperialism and colonialism during that period can be understood by including consular affairs and practices of informal imperialism into the analysis. With this, he contributes to our understanding of the role of smaller states in the so-called Age of Empire.

Aryo Makko, Ph.D. (2012), Stockholm University, is Associate Professor of History at that university and a Pro Futura Scientia Fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). He is also a member of the Young Academy of Sweden.

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Aryo Makko, Ph.D. (2012), Stockholm University, is Associate Professor of History at that university and a Pro Futura Scientia Fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). He is also a member of the Young Academy of Sweden.
Acknowledgements
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations

Introduction
 1 Focus of This Book
 2 Sources
 3 Structure
 4 Prior Research

1 Power in the Age of Empire
 1 Sweden-Norway during the Age of Empire: Shipping, Trade and Globalization
 2 Trade, Diplomacy and Security? Consuls and Foreign Policy

2 Years of Ambition, 1875–1884
 1 The Consular Committee of 1875 and the Backlog of Reforms
 2 Africa: Economic Stagnation and Mixed Courts
 3 Eastern and Southern Asia: the “Opening” of a Continent
 4 West Indies: Old Ambitions, New Realities
 5 Conclusions

3 Disillusionment and Years of Conflict, 1884–1905
 1 The Consular Regulation of 1886 and Renewed Failures
 2 After Berlin: the Scramble for Africa
 3 Eastern and Southern Asia: Growth, Tension and Hesitation
 4 West Indies: Colonial Periphery and Merchant Consuls
 5 Conclusions

4 From Informal Empire to Small State Realism, 1905–1914
 1 Zero Hour: Reorganizing the Foreign Service
 2 Africa: Maintaining the Status Quo
 3 Eastern and Southern Asia: Concentrating Efforts
 4 West Indies: Falling into Oblivion
 5 Conclusions

Conclusion
Appendix
Bibliography
Index
Institutions, academic libraries as well as anyone interested in Scandinavian history and the histories of imperialism, colonialism, diplomacy and consular affairs.