Targum Chronicles and Its Place Among the Late Targums

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Author: Leeor Gottlieb
Targum Chronicles and Its Place Among the Late Targums heralds a paradigm shift in the understanding of many of the Jewish-Aramaic translations of individual biblical books and their origins. Leeor Gottlieb provides the most extensive study of Targum Chronicles to date, leading to conclusions that challenge long-accepted truisms with regard to the origin of Targums. This book’s trail of evidence convincingly points to the composition of Targums in a time and place that was heretofore not expected to be the provenance of these Aramaic gems of biblical interpretation. This study also offers detailed comparisons to other Targums and fascinating new explanations for dozens of aggadic expansions in Targum Chronicles, tying them to their rabbinic sources.

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Leeor Gottlieb, Ph.D. (2013), Hebrew University, is a lecturer in the Department of Bible at Bar-Ilan University. He is the creator of The Equivalent Project, an electronic tool for the study of ancient biblical translations. His research focuses on Targum studies, biblical Hebrew and textual criticism.
Abbreviations

1 Introduction
 1 The Book of Chronicles and Its Traditional Jewish Commentaries
 2 The Targum of Chronicles as an Object of Research
 3 The Text of Targum Chronicles: Manuscripts and Editions
 4 The Vorlage of Targum Chronicles
 5 Survey of Literature of TC
 6 Research Tools
 7 Structure and Methods of This Work

2 Principal Translation Techniques of Targum Chronicles
 1 Opening
 2 Common Additions in the Aramaic Text
 3 Translation Consistency
 4 Proper Nouns in Targum Chronicles
 5 Double Translations
 6 Harmonization
 7 Trends in Targum Chronicles
 8 Conclusion

3 The Relationship of Targum Chronicles and Targum Jonathan
 1 Opening
 2 Adherence in TC to the Hebrew Text of Chronicles
 3 Similarity of TC and TJ
 4 Disagreement of TC and TJ
 5 Discussion and Conclusions

4 The Relationship of Targum Chronicles and the Pentateuchal Targums in Parallel Genealogical Lists
 1 Opening
 2 The Table of Nations (1 Chr 1:5–23 / Gen 10:2–4, 6–8, 13–18, 22–29)
 3 Ishmael’s Descendants (1 Chr 1:29–31 / Gen 25:13–16)
 4 The Kings of Edom (1 Chr 1:43–54 / Gen 36:31–43)
 5 Summary of Findings
 6 Conclusions

5 The Relationship of Targum Chronicles and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan and Its Implications
 1 Opening
 2 Greek Loanwords Shared by TC and TPJ:
 3 Other Words Shared by TC and TPJ Reflecting Western Aramaic
 4 Words Shared by TC and TPJ Reflecting Eastern Aramaic
 5 Unusual Dialectal Features and Other Indicators of Kindred Linguistic Environments
 6 Direct Literary Dependence
 7 Aramaic Piyyutim in the Liturgical Custom of Medieval Ashkenaz
 8 Conclusions

6 The Relationship of Targum Chronicles and Targum Psalms
 1 Opening
 2 The Word הונגראי and Its Significance for Dating TC and Targum Psalms
 3 Similarities between TC and Targum Psalms in Parallel Verses
 4 Significant Disparities between Parallel Verses in TC and Targum Psalms
 5 Conclusion

7 Targum Chronicles and the Babylonian Talmud
 1 Opening
 2 Probable Usage of the Babylonian Talmud
 3 Possible Usage of the Babylonian Talmud
 4 Closing Remarks

8 Additional Expansions in Targum Chronicles and Their Sources
 1 Opening
 2 Expansions Based upon Targum Pseudo-Jonathan
 3 Expansions Linked to Targum Tosephtot in MS Reuchlin
 4 Other Sources
 5 Expansions Lacking Known Sources
 6 Closing Remarks

9 Conclusions
 1 Summary
 2 When Was Targum Chronicles Composed?
 3 Where Was Targum Chronicles Composed?
 4 Why Was Targum Chronicles Composed?
 5 Implications for Further Research in Targum Studies
Bibliography
Scholars and students of Aramaic studies and Targum studies, and anyone interested in rabbinic exegesis of the Bible.