Minding their Place

Space and Religious Hierarchy in Ibn al-Qayyim’s Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma

Antonia Bosanquet’s Minding Their Place is the first full-length study of Ibn al-Qayyim’s (d. 751/1350) collection of rulings relating to non-Muslim subjects, Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma. It offers a detailed study of the structure, content and authorial method of the work, arguing that it represents the author’s personal composition rather than a synthesis of medieval rulings, as it has often been understood. On this basis, Antonia Bosanquet analyses how Ibn al-Qayyim’s presentation of rulings in Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma uses space to convey his view of religious hierarchy. She considers his answer to the question of whether non-Muslims have a place in the Abode of Islam, how this is defined and how his definition contributes to Ibn al-Qayyim’s broader theological world-view.

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Antonia Bosanquet, PhD (2016), Freie Universität Berlin, is a research associate at Hamburg University. Her previous publications focus on inter-religious relations in Islamic thought, ranging from the 14th-century author Ibn al-Qayyim to the 20th-century author, Muḥammad Quṭb.
List of Figure and Tables
 1 Questions Raised in this Study
 2 Terms and Concepts
 3 Space and Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma
 4 Text as Space?
 5 Significance of this Study
 6 Method and Chapter Outline

part 1: Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma: Text and Content

1 Author, Text and Reception
 1 Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya
 2 The Text of Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma
 3 Reception
 4 Manuscripts and Editions

2 Historical Background
 1 Muslims and non-Muslims in the Mamluk Empire
 2 The ʿUlamāʾ in the Mamluk Period

3 Literary Precedents
 1 The Pact of ʿUmar and the Contract Genre
 2 The Fiqh Compendia
 3 Juristic Literature Focusing on the Ahl al-Dhimma
 4 Manuals of Governance and Statecraft
 5 Ādāb al-Muḥtasib
 6 Mamluk Prescriptive Literature
 7 Similarities and Differences Between the Literary Precedents for Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma
 8 Conclusions: Locating Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma

4 Structure and Method
 1 Structure and Subject Division Within Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma
 2 Sources and Method
 3 Sources for Aḥkām Ahl al-Dhimma
 4 Source Incorporation and Authorial Agency
 5 The Dialectical Method
 6 Digression: its Uses and Functions
 7 Qur’anic Verses and Hadith
 8 Conclusion to Part One

part 2: Space in Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma

5 Separate Space
 1 Mosques, Churches and Dhimmi Homes
 2 Geographical Boundaries and Muslim Space
 3 Ṣulḥ Land, ʿAnwa Land and Dhimmi Space
 4 Tax
 5 Employment in State Administration
 6 Festivals
 7 Dhimmi Marriage
 8 The Dhimmi Wife and the Female Body
 9 Death, Burial and the Afterlife
 10 Conclusion: Separate Space and Private Space in Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma

6 The Relational Space of Personal Interaction
 1 Greeting
 2 Visiting the Sick and Attending Funerals
 3 Commercial Exchange and Business Partnerships
 4 Conversion to Islam and Marriage Relations
 5 The Female Convert’s Relations with her Non-Muslim Family
 6 The Male Convert’s Relations with his Non-Muslim Family
 7 Mixed Marriages and Shared Households
 8 Conclusion: The Characterisation of the Dhimmi

7 The Relational Space of Public Performance
 1 Structural Incorporation of the Pact of ʿUmar in Aḥkām Ahl al-Dhimma
 2 Ibn al-Qayyim’s Sources for the Pact of ʿUmar
 3 Ibn al-Qayyim’s Presentation of the Pact of ʿUmar
 4 Stage Props: Movable Religious Symbols
 5 Stage Backdrop: Non-Movable Religious Symbols
 6 Scripting Dhimmi Performance: Regulating Appearance and Comportment
 7 Conclusion

8 The Contested Space of Non-Muslim Children
 1 Aḥkām Ahl al-Dhimma and the Question of Dhimmi Children
 2 Sources and Framing
 3 Children in This Abode: Legal Responsibility and Religious Education
 4 Legitimising the Non-Muslim Status of the Child
 5 Legitimising the Conversion of the Non-Muslim Child
 6 Sunni Positions on the Fate of Non-Muslim Children After Death
 7 Ibn al-Qayyim’s Review of the Positions
 8 Conclusion

Conclusion: Space, Religious Difference and Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma
 1 Space in Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma
 2 Muslims and non-Muslims in Aḥkām Ahl al-Dhimma
 3 The Place of Dhimmis in the Abode of Islam
 4 Identity, Alterity and Power
 5 Aḥkām Ahl al-Dhimma, Regulatory Discourse about Dhimmis and Ibn al-Qayyim
Author Index
Subject Index
Researchers and students working in the field of Muslim-non-Muslim relations, medieval Islamic law and the thought of Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Taymiyya.