Mighty Baal

Essays in Honor of Mark S. Smith

Mighty Baal: Essays in Honor of Mark S. Smith is the first edited collection devoted to the study of the ancient Near Eastern god Baal. Although the Bible depicts Baal as powerless, the combined archaeological, iconographic, and literary evidence makes it clear that Baal was worshipped throughout the Levant as a god whose powers rivalled any deity. Mighty Baal brings together eleven essays written by scholars working in North America, Europe, and Israel. Essays in part one focus on the main collection of Ugaritic tablets describing Baal’s exploits, the Baal Cycle. Essays in part two treat Baal’s relationships to other deities. Together, the essays offer a rich portrait of Baal and his cult from a variety of methodological perspectives.

The Harvard Semitic Studies series publishes volumes from the Harvard Museum of the Ancient Near East. Other series offered by Brill that publish volumes from the Museum include Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant and Harvard Semitic Monographs, https://hmane.harvard.edu/publications.

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Stephen C. Russell, Ph.D. (2008), New York University, is Associate Professor of History at John Jay College, CUNY. His publications include Space, Land, Territory and the Study of the Bible (Brill, 2017) and The King and the Land (Oxford, 2016).

Esther J. Hamori, Ph.D. (2004), New York University, is Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible at Union Theological Seminary. Her publications include Women's Divination in Biblical Literature (Yale University Press, 2015) and When Gods Were Men (de Gruyter, 2008).
Acknowledgments Vii
List of Abbreviations
Notes on Contributors

Introduction
Stephen C. Russell

Part 1: Baal’s Story


1 The Baal Cycle as a Myth of Cosmic Unification
Robert S. Kawashima

2 Fight Like a Girl: the Performance of Gender and Violence in the Baal Cycle
Corrine Carvalho

3 Male Agency and Masculine Performance in the Baal Cycle
Martti Nissinen

4 Active and Reactive Bodies in the Baal Cycle
Deena Grant

5 The Grammar of Baal’s Epithets
Steven E. Fassberg

6 Where Are All the Colophons? Colophons in the Ancient Near East and in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Sidnie White Crawford

Part 2: Baal’s Peers


7 Gods in Translation and Location
Ronald Hendel

8 Ugaritic Athtartu Šadi, Food Production, and Textiles: More Data for Reassessing the Biblical Portrayal of Aštart in Context
Theodore J. Lewis

9 Yahweh among the Baals: Israel and the Storm Gods
Daniel E. Fleming

10 Who Is the Baal of Peor?
Susan Ackerman

11 Baal’s Legacy: Echoes of Ugarit in Papyrus Amherst 63
Karel van der Toorn

Index
All interested in ancient Near Eastern religion, mythology, and history and anyone wishing to better understand the context of biblical monolatry and the development of western monotheism.