Nationalism and Territoriality in Barue and Mozambique

Independence, Belonging, Contradiction


Nationalism, as an ideology coupling self-conscious peoples to fixed territories, is often seen as emerging from European historical developments, also in postcolonial countries outside Europe. André van Dokkum’s Nationalism and Territoriality in Barue and Mozambique shows that this view is not universally true. The precolonial Kingdom of Barue in what is now Mozambique showed characteristics generally associated with nationalism, giving the country great resilience against colonial encroachment. Postcolonial Mozambique, on the other hand, has so far not succeeded in creating national coherence. The former anti-colonial organization and now party in power Frelimo has always stressed national unity, but only under its own guidance, paradoxically producing disunity.

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André van Dokkum, Ph.D. (2015), VU University Amsterdam, is Adjunct Assistant Professor at the University of Macau. He published two edited volumes on Africanist topics, with G.J. Abbink: Verdeeld Afrika (AMB, 2008) and Dilemmas of Development (African Studies Centre, 2008).
Preface and Acknowledgements
Acronyms, Abbreviations, Symbols and Names
List of Maps, Figures and Tables

1 Introduction and Outline of the Argument
 1 Data Collection: Written Historical Data; Aspects of Fieldwork; Oral Data
 2 Theoretical Aspects
 3 Terminology
  3.1 The Concept of ‘Nation’ and Mozambique
  3.2 State
  3.3 Ethnicity and Different Manifestations of Nationalism in Postcolonial Africa
 4 Outline of the Book

2 The Kingdom of Barue: The Desire for Independence
 1Introductory Comments
  1.1 Dynastic Politics
  1.2 Beliefs about Spirit Mediums
  1.3 Languages and Ethnic Groups
  1.4 Economic Aspects
  1.5 Open Questions
 2 Borders, Capital, and Population of the Kingdom of Barue
  2.1 Borders
  2.2 Capital
  2.3 Population Numbers; Fighting Force of the Army
 3 The Mutapa State and the Formation of the Kingdom of Barue
 4 The Arrival of the Portuguese at the Lower Zambezi; the Prazos
 5 Barue as an Independent State
 6 Makombe Gunguru
 7 After Gunguru until the Mid-Nineteenth Century
 8 The Efforts to Maintain Independence c. 1853–1918
  8.1 Genealogical Aspects
  8.2 Activities and Defeat of Chipapata/Kabudu Kagoro
  8.3 Activities of Kanga until 1890
  8.4 Barue’s Independence, 1890/1892–1902
  8.5 The Interbellum 1902–1917
  8.6 The Barue Revolt of 1917–1918
 9 Reflections on Barue as a State

Intermezzo – From Precolonial Barue to Postcolonial Mozambique

3 Frelimo and o ther Anticolonial Organizations until 1975
 1 Early Frelimo History
  1.1 Early Activities
  1.2 The Mueda Massacre
  1.3 manu, udenamo, and unami, and the Frelimo Merger
  1.4 Mondlane’s Rise as Frelimo Leader
  1.5The Consolidation Meeting
  1.6 Frelimo’s First Congress
  1.7 Some Preliminary Notes on ‘Definitions of the Enemy’
 2 Developments within Frelimo 1962–1966
 3 The October 1966 Meeting of the Central Committee
 4 Frelimo’s Difficulties with Students in 1967 and 1968
 5 The Assaults on Frelimo’s Office in May 1968
 6 Frelimo’s Second Congress
  6.1 Planning for the Second Congress
  6.2 Procedural Aspects and Results of the Second Congress
  6.3 The Presidential Vote at the Second Congress
 7 Aftermath of the Second Congress
  7.1 The Second Session of the Central Committee
  7.2 Nkavandame’s Expulsion from Frelimo
 8 Mondlane’s Assassination and Subsequent Developments within Frelimo
 9 ‘Race’, Ethnicity, and Nationality with Frelimo and Mondlane
  9.1 ‘Race’
  9.2 Ethnicity
  9.3 Nationalism with Mondlane, Dos Santos, and Machel
  9.4 Nationhood: the Case of Rumbézia
 10 Mondlane and Marxist Ideology
 11 Conclusions Concerning Frelimo’s Internal Crisis
 12 coremo and Other Non-Frelimo Anticolonial Organizations
 13 Portuguese and Western International Reactions to the Anticolonial Insurrection
 14 Euro-American Reactions to the 1966–1970 Crisis within Frelimo
 15 Conclusion

4 After Independence: Frelimo’s Struggle for a One-Party Nation
 1 The End of the New State and Related Events
 2 Multipartyism, State-Building, and the ‘Third Wave’ Hypothesis
 3 Suspension of Habeas Corpus and the Nachingwea proceedings
 4 Events Shortly after Independence
 5 Frelimo and Hereditary Leaders in Rural Areas
 6 The Emergence and Development of Renamo, 1976–1986
 7 Other Developments 1977–1987
 8 The Peace Process
 9 Constitutional Change
 10 Legislation on ‘Traditional Authorities’ and ‘Community Authorities’
 11 The Earliest Multiparty Elections
  11.1 The 1994 General and Presidential Elections
  11.2 The 1998 Local Elections
  11.3 The 1999 General and Presidential Elections
  11.4 Credibility of Elections
 12 The Emergence of mdm and the Re-emergence of Frelimo/Renamo Hostilities
 13 Conclusion

intermezzo – Barue District’s Political Predicaments

5 Chiefdom Politics in Barue District
 1 Administrative Developments
 2 Spirit Mediums
 3 Mpanze
 4 Sanhantamba
 5 Sanhatunze
 6 Samanhanga
 7 The Former Tangwena Chiefdom in Barue
 8 Seguma
 9 Sabão
 10 Bango/Macufa (Chôa)
 11 Sahatsiro
 12 Sanhamáuè
 13 The Chôa Area Leadership Competition Problem and Involvement of the Populatio
 14 Saluanza
 15 Conclusion

6 Aspects of Frelimo Party Politics in Barue District
 1 Background of the Cell/Circle System
 2 Leadership in Cells and Circles, and Party-Political Representativeness of a Sample of Cells
 3 Circle Secretaries of Tongogara and Sabão
 4 Community Leaders ( Líderes Comunitários)
 5 Other Local Leaders within the Frelimo Party or the Government
 6 Bureaucratic Devices Employed by Frelimo to Control the Population
 7 Other Forms of Checking the Population
 8 Conclusion 1

7 Conclusion

Appendix 1 Nations as Human Collectivities: Some Theoretical Considerations
 1 Culture and Nation as Possibly Contested
 2 Delineations of ‘Nation’

Appendix 2 The Wieschhoff/Shungano list of the Makombe dynasty

Appendix 3 Partial overview of reigning Makombes

Appendix 4 The 1999 presidential election in Mozambique
 1 Approach
 2 Data
 3 Trends in the Data
 4Brancos in included editais
 5 Excluded Editais
 6 Reconstructing Excluded Editais
 7 Conclusion

Academics and professionals with an interest in nationalism, contemporary and historical, Mozambique specialists, and historians interested in precolonial politics and anti-colonial resistance of the Kingdom of Barue.