Micro and Macro Philosophy: Organicism in Biology, Philosophy, and Politics


What role can philosophy play in a world dominated by neoliberalism and globalization? Must it join universalist ideologies as it did in past centuries? Or might it turn to ethnophilosophy and postmodern fragmentation? Micro and Macro Philosophy argues that universalist cosmopolitanism and egocentric culturalism are not the only alternatives. Western philosophy has created a false dichotomy. A better solution can be found in an organic philosophy that functions through micro-macro interactions. According to biologists, the twentieth century was the century of the gene, while the twenty-first century is destined to be the century of the organic. Micro and Macro Philosophy attempts to establish such a view in philosophy: by highlighting micro-macro patterns found in history, it seeks to design new ways of "organic thinking" in the human sciences.

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Thorsten Botz-Bornstein was born in Germany, did his undergraduate studies in Paris, and received a Ph.D. in philosophy from Oxford University in 1993. He is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Gulf University for Science and Technology in Kuwait.

 1 The Switch to the Organic
 2 Micro and Macrocosm
 3 Kitsch Philosophy
 4 Micro–Macro in Biology
 5 Anti-modern “Microisms”
 6 Organic Science or Alchemy?
 7 Micro-philosophical Counter-movements
 8 The Philosopher and Philosophy
 9 The Future of Philosophy

1 Organicism in Biology and Philosophy
 1 Organicism in Biology
 1.1 Machines and Organisms
 1.2 Structures and Functions
 2 The Absent Structure
 3 Monism
 4 Derrida
 5 Emergentism

2 Organicism vs. Totalitarianism
 1 “Things Fall Apart”
 2 Organicism vs. Creationism

3 Philosophy and Culture
 1 The Universal and the Local
 2 Philosophy in a Decultured World
 3 Philosophy and Non-philosophy
 4 Civilization and Culture
 5 World vs. Global

4 Micro Philosophies
 1 European Micro Philosophies
 1.1 Gilles Deleuze
 1.2 Michel Foucault
 1.3 Jean-François Lyotard
 2 Cultural Studies
 3 The Fear of the Total

5 Universalism and Racism: from Herder to Hegel
 1 Unipolar vs. Multipolar
 2 Hegelian Universalism
 3 Cosmopolitan Universalism
 4 Nationalist Philosophies
 5 Provincial Philosophy

6 Micro and Macro Philosophy
 1 The Micro and Culture
 2 Organic Traditions
 2.1 Plato’s Cosmology
 2.2 Herder’s Cosmology
 2.3 Arthur Koestler
 2.4 Niklas Luhmann
 2.5 Other Western Organic Philosophies
  2.5.1   Hermeneutics as a Biological Science
  2.5.2   Wittgenstein’s Organic Lebensform
 2.6 Non-western Organicism
 3 Philosophy and Religion
 4 Philosophy and Deculturation

7 Memetics: The Evolution of Signs
 1 Semiotics and Evolution
 2 Memetics and Genetics
 3 Memetics and Aesthetics
 3.1 Replication, Imitation, Mimesis
 3.2 Memetics and Mimesis
  3.2.1  Semper’s Materialist Memetics
  3.2.2  Anti-darwinian Aesthetics
 4 Memetics and Lifestyle

8 Philosophy and Thought
 1 Systematic vs. Non-systematic
 2 Philosophy, Theory, Thought
 3 Philosophy and Life
 4 Thought and Life
 5 Thought in Minority Philosophies

9 The Future of Thought
 1 Thought in Non-Western Cultures
 1.1 Thought and Democracy
 1.2 Non-Western Thought in the West
 1.3 Thought in Japan and China
 1.4 Thought in Africa
 1.5 Arab-Islamic Thought
 2 Historicity
 3 Reconsidering Ethnophilosophy
 4 Non-Western Micro Philosophies
 5 Future Philosophies
 5.1 Analytic-continental
 5.2 Pragmatism
 5.3 Contemplative Philosophy
 6 Towards a Philosophical Reculturation


Can be used as a textbook for an ‘Introduction to philosophy’ class. Students of all levels of philosophy, cultural studies, and educational sciences.