A Grammar of Giziga

A Chadic Language of Far North Cameroon

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Author: Erin Shay
This is the first broad, detailed grammar of the Giziga language, which belongs to the Chadic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. The language is spoken in parts of the Far North Region of the Republic of Cameroon and can be divided into two dialects, Giziga and Northern Giziga, with about 80,000 native speakers in total. This volume describes the Giziga dialect, occasionally referring to the Northern variety, and aims to provide new information about this and other Afro-Asiatic languages for further research in linguistics, history, anthropology, sociology and related fields. The book will also be a tool helping Giziga speakers preserve their language, history and culture for future generations.

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Erin Shay is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Linguistics at the University of Colorado Boulder. She is the author/co-author of grammars of four Chadic languages and many books and papers concerning linguistic forms and functions.
Acknowledgments
List of Tables
Abbreviations

1 The Giziga Language
 1  Name, Classification, and Geographical Location
 2  Existing Literature
 3  Data Sources
 4  Notes on Data and Transcription
 5  Outline of the Grammar
 6  Conclusion

2 Phonology
 1  Introduction
 2  Consonants
 3  Vowels
 4  Syllable Structures and Syllabification
 5  Phonotactics
 6  Tone
 7  Conclusions

3 Verbs
 1  Introduction
 2  The Nature of the Underlying Form
 3  Structural Classes of Verbs
 4  Tone in the Verbal Piece
 5  Monosyllabic Verbs
 6  Bisyllabic Verbs
 7  Deriving the Infinitive Stem
 8  Deriving the Participial Stem
 9  Conclusions

4 Nouns, Pronouns and Noun Phrases
 1  Introduction
 2  Phonology of Nouns
 3  Vowel-Final Nouns
 4  Glide-Final Nouns
 5  Consonant-Final Nouns
 6  Derived Nouns
 7  Semantic Categories of Nouns
 8  Conjoining Noun Phrases
 9  Independent Pronouns
 10  The Noun Phrase
 11  Modifying Constructions
 12  Number in the Noun Phrase
 13  Conclusions

5 Coding Grammatical Relations
 1  Introduction
 2  Subject
 3  Object Suffixes
 4  Classes of Verbs
 5  Conclusions

6 Coding Semantic Relations
 1  Introduction
 2  Default Semantic Roles
 3  Conclusions

7 Tense and Aspect
 1  Introduction
 2  Perfective Aspect
 3  Imperfective Aspect
 4  Progressive Aspect
 5  Frequentative Aspect
 6  Past Tense
 7  Future Tense
 8  Conclusions

8 Marking the End of the Event
 1  Introduction
 2  Form and Distribution of the End-of-Event Marker
 3  Conclusions

9 Modality
 1  Introduction
 2  Deontic Modality
 3  Hypothetical Modality
 4  Coding Pretense
 5  Doubt in Truth
 6  The Modal Particle ‘be able to’
 7  Conclusions

10 Locative Predication
 1  Introduction
 2  Locative Verbs
 3  Ventive Extension -áwà
 4  Stative Predications
 5  Prepositions
 6  Spatial Specifiers
 7  Cardinal Directions
 8  Serial Verb Constructions
 9  Conclusions

11 Verbless Clauses
 1  Introduction
 2  Identificational Clauses
 3  Attributive Clauses
 4  Existential Clauses
 5  Possessive Clauses
 6  Temporal Distinctions in the Verbless Clause
 7  Conclusions

12 System of Reference
 1  Introduction
 2  Anaphoric Reference to Participants
 3  Remote Previous Mention
 4  Referential Object Clitic =a
 5  Anaphoric Reference to Location, Time, and Events
 6  Deictic Reference to Participants
 7  Unspecified Referent
 8  Conclusions

13 Interrogatives
 1  Introduction
 2  Polar Interrogatives
 3  Disjunctive Questions: X or Y?
 4  Content Interrogatives
 5  Questions in the Domain de dicto
 6  Conclusions

14 Negative Predication
 1  Introduction
 2  Negating the Verbless Clause
 3  Negation in the Verbal Clause
 4  Coding Tense in the Negative Clause
 5  Negating the Non-referential Subject
 6  Conclusions

15 Topics and Topicalization
 1  Introduction
 2  Topicalized Subject
 3  Topicalized Direct Object
 4  Topicalized Indirect Object
 5  Other Topicalized Constituents
 6  Non-constituent Topic
 7  Shift in Topic
 8  Conclusions

16 Contrastive Focus
 1  Introduction
 2  Focused Subject
 3  Focused Object
 4  Focused Predicate
 5  Contrastive Focus on Other Constituents
 6  Conclusions

17 Conjoining Clauses
 1  Introduction
 2  Parataxis (Asyndetic Conjunction)
 3  The Conjunction páɗ
 4  Sequential Conjunction
 5  Conjoining Affirmative and Negative Clauses
 6  Conclusions

18 Complement Clauses
 1  Introduction
 2  Comment on a Noun Phrase
 3  Comment on an Adjunct
 4  Comment on the Protasis
 5  Comment on the Purpose Clause
 6  Comment on the Matrix Clause
 7  Comment on a Complete Clause
 8  Interrogative as Comment
 9  Conclusions

19 Relative Clauses
 1  Introduction
 2  Form of the Relative Clause
 3  Tense and Aspect in the Relative Clause
 4  Coding the Role of the Relativized Constituent
 5  Conclusions

20 Conditional and Temporal Constructions
 1  Introduction
 2  Conditional/Temporal Protasis
 3  Conclusions

21 Complementation
 1  Introduction
 2  Complements of Verbs
 3  Conclusions

22 Coding Purpose and Reason
 1  Introduction
 2  Irrealis Purpose Adjuncts
 3  Reason Phrases
 4  Conclusions

23 Comparative Constructions
 1  Introduction
 2  Equal Comparison
 3  Unequal Comparison
 4  Conclusions

24 Adjuncts
 1  Introduction
 2  Temporal Adjuncts
 3  Manner Adjuncts
 4  Interjections and Terms of Address
 5  Intensifiers
 6  Ideophones
 7  Conclusions

25 Sample Texts
 1  Introduction
 2  The Story of Kay and Her Brother Gòló (Narrated by Saini Sikoua in 2006)
 3  A History of Muturua (Narrated by Saini Sikoua in 2007)

Appendix 1: A Compilation of Tables
Appendix 2: A Summary of Morphological Forms and Functions
Giziga-English Lexicon
English-Giziga Lexicon
References
Index
The book will be useful for students and professional linguists focusing on comparative, typological, and diachronic linguistics, and to Giziga speakers who wish to preserve their language and culture.