The Taiji Government and the Rise of the Warrior State

The Formation of the Qing Imperial Constitution


Read The Taiji Government and you will discover a bold and original revisionist interpretation of the formation of the Qing imperial constitution. Contrary to conventional wisdom, which portrays the Qing empire as a Chinese bureaucratic state that colonized Inner Asia, this book contends quite the reverse. It reveals the Qing as a Warrior State, a Manchu-Mongolian aristocratic union and a Buddhist caesaropapist monarchy. In painstaking detail, brushstroke by brushstroke, the author urges you to picture how the Mongolian aristocratic government, the Inner Asian military-oriented numerical divisional system, the technique of conquest rule, and the Mongolian doctrine of a universal Buddhist empire together created the last of the Inner Asian empires that conquered and ruled what is now China.

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Lhamsuren Munkh-Erdene, Ph.D. (2004), Hokkaido University, is Professor of History and Anthropology at National University of Mongolia, and a Visiting Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology. He has published articles on the Inner Asian political order, including “The Rise of the Chinggisid Dynasty: Pre-modern Eurasian Political Order and Culture at a Glance”.
List of Maps and Figures
List of Abbreviations
Note on Transcription and Translation


1 The Qing Inner Asian Political Order
 1 The Qing Constitution: The Triumph of the Bureaucratic-Colonial Model
 2 The Qing Tributary System: Suzerain–Vassal State Relations
 3 The Manchu Colonialism: Chinese Defensive Empire into Chinese Conquest Empire
 4 Manchu’s Mongolian Social Revolution
 5 The Chinggisid Taiji Government and Mongolia and the Qing

2 Alliance to Coalition
 1 Pre-1636 Manchu-Mongolian Relations: Alliance to Tutelage?
 2 Manchu-Mongolian Princely Treaties: Defensive Alliances
 3 Manchu-Khorchin Engagement and Manchu Dependence on Khorchin
 4 The Creation of External Mongolia and the Formation of a Multilateral Coalition
 5 The Coalition, Assembly, Codes, and Leadership

3 The Manchu Conquest: Winner Takes All
 1 Shifting Borders: Qurban Tsönggereg to Shariljitai to Shonkhor
 2 Changing Stories: Ligdan’s Flight or Hong Taiji’s Defeat?
 3 The Demise of the Mongolian Great State and the Rise of the Daiching State
 4 Ligdan: From Lawful Great Khan to Quixotic Delusional Dreamer
 5 Charisma: The Very Essence of Inner Asian Politics

4 From the Taishi Government to the Taiji Government
 1 The Mongol Empire and the Northern Yuan Dynasty
 2 The Taishi Government and Its Demise
 3 Dayan Khanid Reign: The Rise of the Taiji Government
 4 The Taiji Government Structure: A Federal Constitutional Monarchy

5 The Taiji Government: A Parliamentary Aristocracy
 1 The Seven Khoshuus or the Khalkha Tümen
 2 An Aristocratic Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
 3 The Chuulgan: An Aristocratic Parliament
 4 The Jasag: An Appointed Central Government
 5 The Khoshuu: Autonomous Lordship and Government Unit
 6 The Northern Yuan: An Inner Asian Parallel to the Holy Roman Empire

6 The Rise and Fall of the Jaisang Government
 1 The Destruction of the Great State: Contrary-to-Government Deeds
 2 The Abolishment of Taiji Government: Ligdan’s Reform and Princely Revolts
 3 The Dissolution of Tümen-Khanates
 4 The Saghang Saga: A Coup and the Demise of the Mongol Empire
 5 The Proclamation of the Daiching Ulus: A United Manchu–Mongolian State

7 Aimag and Pre-Modern Mongolia in Modern Euro-Sinocentric Vision
 1 Bichurin’s Foresight: Aimag from Principalities to Tribes to Secondary Tribes
 2 Aimag and Mongolia in Modern Euro-Sinocentric Vision
 3 Archaeology of Aimag or External Aimag
 4 The External Aimags: Mongolian Principalities
 5 The Internal Aimags: Manchu Principalities

8 The Daiching Ulus and Mongolia: An Inner Asian Aristocratic Federation
 1 Conferral Letter: Covenant as Investiture
 2 Covenant, Pillars, and Co-Rulers: One Accord, Mutual Reliance, and Tüshiyetü Khan
 3 The Daiching Ulus: An Inner Asian Aristocratic Federation
 4 The Daiching Gurun as Pax Manjurica and Pax Mongolica

9 The Mongolian World Order and the Daiching Ulus
 1 The Chakravartin Monarchy and the Great State of Five Colors and Four Aliens
 2 The Altanid Redefinition: The Dyarchy of Aristocracy and Theocracy
 3 For the Sake of the Government and the Faith: Seeking the Qubilaid Legitimacy
 4 Claiming ’Phags-pa’s Seat

10 The Rivalry of the Daiching Ulus and the Döchin and Dörben
 1 The Rise of the Döchin and Dörben
 2 The Daiching Ulus and the Döchin and Dörben Hostility
 3 The Qing and the Khalkha Treaty
 4 Turmoil in the Döchin and Dörben: Structural Problems within the Regime
 5 The Khüren Belchir Assembly and Zanabazar’s Justice
 6 The Failure at the Khüren Belchir Assembly
 7 The Destruction of the Döchin and Dörben

11 The Empire of the Two Norms
 1 The Dalai Lama and the Making of the Manjushri Chakravartin Khan
 2 The Taiji Government: Mutual Reliance and the Guest State
 3 The Manjushri Chakravartin Monarch: The Patron and the Protector of the Faith
 4 Surpassing Qubilai: Consolidation of the Government of the Two Norms

All those interested in the rise of the Qing Empire and its constitution, and anyone concerned with the pre-modern Inner Asian political order and empire-building.