Recueil des cours, Collected Courses, Tome 416

Series: 

Solidarity and Community Interests: Driving Forces for the Interpretation and Development of International Law; General Course on Public International Law by Rüdiger Wolfrum.
References to legal regimes serving the interests of the community of States have become quite frequent, less so references to regimes guided by the principle of solidarity. The General Course undertook to analyze the relevant regimes. This analysis established contours on what are the essential features of community interests and the principle of solidarity. It identified three types of community interests.
In a further step, the Course assessed as to whether the traditional international norm- making as well as its implementation system meet the challenges resulting from the dedication to community interests or to the principle of solidarity. It concludes that these regimes have had a significant impact upon the international normative order. International regimes are developed in stages; non-legally binding norms initiate and guide on a principled level such norm making. Non-legally binding norms occasionally substitute legal regimes. New actors besides States and international organizations influence the development international norms and new fora have emerged initiating norms or develop them progressively. These normative developments have had an influence on the relevant international implementation/enforcement systems. The Course identifies a clear shift from confrontational means of enforcement to non-confrontational ones.
Finally, the Course identified that the existing international dispute settlement system is only beginning to meet the challenges posed by community oriented regimes. The possibility to bring a case before an international court or tribunal is still dominated by the dogma that such action can only be brought by States, which can claim the violation of their individual interests. The International Court of Justice eroded this dogma in its Order of January 2020 concerning the dispute between The Gambia and Myanmar.

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Rüdiger Wolfrum, born on 13 December 1941 in Berlin, Germany. Education: High school education (Abitur, 1962); military service (Navy 1962-1964); law studies at Bonn and Tübingen (1964-1969); graduation to Doctor iuris and conclusion of legal training (1973); Habilitation, venia legendi for national public and international public law (University of Bonn, 1980).
Academic positions: Professor of National Public and International Public Law at University of Mainz, Faculty of Law and Economics (May 1982-November 1982); Professor Chair of National Public and International Public Law, University of Kiel, Law Faculty, and Director of the Institute of International Law (December 982-April 1993); Visiting Professor at the University of Minnesota, Law School, teaching international environmental law and the law concerning Antarctica (August/September 1987, 1990, 1993); Director at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg, and Professor of National Public and International Public Law at Heidelberg University, Faculty of Law (May 1993-December 2012); Honorary Professor of the Faculty of Law, University of Hamburg (since October 2002); Visiting Lecturer at Yale Law School, teaching law of the sea and international humanitarian law together with Professor M. Reisman (February 2011); Managing Director of Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law (January 2013-December 2020); Membre Associé of the Institut de Droit International (since 2007).
Legal career: International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (Judge, 1996-2017; Vice-President, 1996-1999; President, 2005-2008); Member of the International Environmental Board of Arbitration (since 2001); The Hague (2005-2008); Presiding Arbitrator of the Bay of Bengal Maritime Boundary Arbitration (Bangladesh v. India) arbitral tribunal (2010-2014); Member of the Chagos Marine Protected Area Arbitration (Mauritius v. United Kingdom) (2011-2015); Presiding Arbitrator of the *Mohamed Abdel Raouf Bahgat v. The Arab Republic of Egypt) arbitral tribunal (2012-2018); Member of the Between the Republic of the Philippines v. the People’s Republic of China with respect to the dispute with China over maritime jurisdiction of the Philippines in the west Philippines Sea (Philippines v. China) arbitration (2013-2016); Member of the Atlantic Scandian Herring Arbitration Arbitral (The Kingdom of Denmark in respect of the Faroe Islands v. The European Union) (2014-2015); Member of the Conciliation Commission Constituted under Annex V to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea between the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste and the Commonwealth of Australia (2016-2018); Presiding Arbitrator of the Fynerdale Holdings B.V. (Netherlands) v. Czech Republic arbitral tribunal (since 2018); Member of the Dispute Concerning the Detention of Ukrainian Naval Vessels and Servicemen (Ukraine v. The Russian Federation) arbitral tribunal (since 2019).
Other honours: Doctor honoris causa of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (1999); Doctor honoris causa of the Shihutug Law College, Ulan Bator, Mongolia (1999); Honorary Member of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (since 2006); Honorary Professor of the Faculty of Law of the University of Pretoria (2010-2015); Doctor honoris causa of the National University of Cuyo in Mendoza, Argentina (2017).
Part I. Shaping and interpreting the international normative order: in general ....... 27 Prologue .................................... 28 Chapter 1. Basis of the international normative order............ 30 A. What is international law? Some general considerations ....... 30 B. Does international law constitute a legally binding order? ...... 33 1. Prevailing approaches........................ 33 2. Challenges for the international normative order ......... 39 3. Is only a legally binding order of relevance for international relations? What are the alternatives? 40 C. Basic conditions for the development of international law ...... 40 1. Beneficial factors for the establishment and safeguarding of a sustainable international legal order ................ 40 (a) Acknowledgement of the existence of a plurality of actors, which, at least in principle, have equal status......... 40 (b) Common values......................... 44 (c) Common objectives....................... 45 (d) Interdependencies........................ 47 2. Distorting factors .......................... 49 (a) Loss of common values .................... 49 (b) Hegemonic actors or groups .................. 50 (c) Isolated actors/free riders.................... 50 D. Specific factors and principles forming the basis for progressive developing international law, which may be universal, regional or sectoral .. 51 1. As an introduction: Codification v. progressive development... 51 2. Necessity for coordinated actions and measures.......... 52 3. Necessity for cooperation...................... 54 4. Community interests ........................ 58 (a) What is the international community and who constitutes it? 58 (b) Meaning and scope of community interests/concerns..... 60 5. The principle of solidarity ..................... 74 (a) Meaning and scope of the principle of solidarity ....... 74 (b) Is there room in international law for the principle of soli darity? .............................. 78 Chapter 2. Traditional actors in international relations ........... 79 A. Subjects of international law ...................... 79 1. Notion ................................ 79 2. Traditional subjects ......................... 81 (a) States .............................. 81 (b) International organisations ................... 85 Chapter 3. Traditional sources of international law: potential and/or limits for a progressive development on the basis of the acknowledgement of community interests and the principle of solidarity ............ 94 A. International law sources........................ 94 1. Introduction ............................. 94 2. The notion of international law sources .............. 94 3. Identification of international law sources ............. 95 4. Lawmaking process in international law.............. 97 B. International treaties .......................... 99 1. International treaties as mechanisms to shape international rela tions ................................. 99 (a) On international treaties: An introduction ........... 99 2. Pacta sunt servanda/impact of treaties on third States to accommodate community interests . 101 3. Categories of international treaties and consequences accruing therefrom .............................. 103 4. Treaty-making process: The potential for and/or barrier to pro gressive development with a view to accommodate community interests and the principle of solidarity .............. 108 5. Reservations: Universality v. progressive development ...... 112 6. Invalidation, revision of treaties, amendments, modification and termination: Stabilisation v. progressive development....... 114 7. Interpretation between establishing the literal meaning and progressive development of international law............. 118 8. Conclusions ............................. 130 C. Customary international law ...................... 131 1. Theory ................................ 131 2. Customary international law as a mechanism to progressively develop international law in view of the acknowledgement of community interests and the principle of solidarity ........ 137 D. General principles ........................... 138 1. Introductory remarks ........................ 138 2. Historical development of the notion of general principles .... 139 3. General principles derived from national law ........... 140 4. General principles formed within the international legal system . 141 5. The relationship between general principles and treaty law as well as customary international law ................ 144 6. General principles as potential mechanisms to progressively develop international law in view of the acknowledgement of community interests and the principle of solidarity ........ 146 7. Recently emerged general principles of law which are having an impact on the shaping of international law: The procedure of their emergence and their objective ................ 146 (a) Introduction ........................... 146 (b) Principle of humanity ..................... 147 (c) Principle of good neighbourliness: The no-harm principle . . 149 (d) Preventive principle ...................... 150 (e) Precautionary principle/approach ............... 152 (f) Polluter-pays principle ..................... 156 (g) The principle of sustainable development ........... 158 (h) Principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.... 163 (i) The common heritage principle ................ 167 E. Unilateral acts as elements of the international normative order ... 172 F. Decisions of international organisations as elements of the international normative order ...... 173 G. The role of non-legally binding norms (soft law) ........... 176 II. Community interests and the principle of solidarity as a basis of particular legal regimes ....... 179 Chapter 4. Particularly featured international law .............. 180 A. Law of coordination .......................... 180 1. Introduction ............................. 180 2. Nature of obligations ........................ 181 3. Potential mechanisms for implementation ............. 182 B. Law of cooperation ........................... 182 1. Introduction ............................. 182 2. Purpose of the law of cooperation ................. 184 3. General obligation to cooperate for development ......... 186 C. Treaty-based obligations to cooperate: The sectoral approach .... 188 1. Introduction ............................. 188 2. Cooperation in spaces beyond national jurisdiction ........ 189 3. Cooperation in the preservation of peace ............. 194 4. Cooperation in international environmental law .......... 195 5. Cooperation in the protection of human rights .......... 199 6. Cooperation in international economic relations.......... 201 7. Cooperation in international dispute settlement .......... 204 8. Final remarks on the obligation to cooperate sectorally...... 207 D. International law serving community interests ............ 208 1. What is the objective of the following considerations? ...... 208 2. Mechanisms to translate community interest into reality in respect of maritime areas ............ 209 (a) Concerning the sea beyond and within national jurisdiction . 209 (b) Deep seabed (Area)....................... 218 (c) Antarctica ............................ 220 (d) Outer Space ........................... 223 (e) Arctic .............................. 225 (f) Preliminary summary: Common features and differences... 227 3. Topical community interests .................... 230 (a) Introduction ........................... 230 (b) Preservation of peace...................... 231 (c) Human rights .......................... 237 (d) Protection of the environment ................. 248 (e) Climate change ......................... 261 (f) Free communication ...................... 266 (g) Eradication of poverty ..................... 266 (h) Management of international migration ............ 267 (i) Human genome ......................... 269 (j) International management of issues related to health ..... 270 E. Summary: Which are the institutional and normative particularities of regimes tailored to serve community interests?........... 271 1. Institutional consequences ..................... 271 (a) Introduction ........................... 271 (b) Multilateral conferences .................... 272 (c) Conferences and Meetings of Parties ............. 272 (d) Treaty bodies (human rights) ................. 274 (e) Networks ............................ 274 (f) Others (individuals, NGOs, multinational enterprises) .... 276 2. Normative contributions ...................... 280 (a) What is the role of States in respect to forming the interna tional normative order? ..............280 (b) Normative contributions of international organisations.... 281 (c) Normative contributions of multilateral conferences ..... 282 (d) Normative contributions of Conferences/Meetings of Parties: How do they integrate into the international normative order? 283 (e) Normative contribution of treaty bodies (human rights)? ... 288 (f) Decisions or measures of networks without an institutional structure: How do they contribute to the international nor mative order? ........ 292 (g) The contribution of internationally accepted standards as mechanisms for the development of the international normative order........................... 293 3. Concluding remarks......................... 297 Chapter 5. International law reflecting the principle of solidarity ..... 298 A. Introduction: UN pronouncements on solidarity............ 298 B. Content of the principle of solidarity in respect to particular regimes 300 1. Some general remarks as an introductory note .......... 300 2. Solidarity: A structural principle in the international system on the protection of peace .......... 300 3. Solidarity as a structural principle in international environmental law.................................. 305 4. Is solidarity still a structural principle in the international regime concerning the world climate? 310 5. Solidarity as a structural principle of Part XI of UNCLOS (deep seabed mining) ........................... 311 6. Outer space/geostationary orbit................... 319 7. Biological resources beyond national jurisdiction: A developing system based upon the principle of solidarity? .......... 320 8. Humanitarian assistance or intervention as a form of solidarity and responsibility to protect .. 320 (a) Humanitarian assistance after natural disasters or cases of emergency............................ 320 (b) Humanitarian intervention in cases of gross and systematic violations of human rights ......... 322 (c) Reaction of the Security Council to grave and persistent vio lations of human rights: Acting on behalf of the international community? ...... 325 (d) Responsibility to protect .................... 326 (i) A brief recapitulation of the development of the concept 326 (ii) Practical relevance: Security Council action motivated by the concept of the responsibility to protect ...... 330 9. Solidarity as a crucial element in the attempts to develop a New International Economic Order ..... 333 10. Solidarity in the context of the WTO regime .......... 335 11. Solidarity in the context of a management of migration..... 336 12. Concluding remarks ........................ 337 Chapter 6. Influence of community interests and solidarity on the interpretation and further development of international norms .......... 340 A. Introduction ............................... 340 B. On the scope of actors ......................... 341 1. A redistribution of normative competencies among actors?.... 342 2. On the dogma of equality of actors ................ 343 3. Evolvement of a principle of indispensable actors ........ 344 C. Rethinking the scope and structure of the international normative order................................... 345 1. Broadening the realm of sources .................. 345 2. Regimes serving community interests and their impact on the drafting procedure: UNCLOS III, Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings and Rio Conference system ............... 346 3. Mechanisms in international norms serving community interests providing for the possibility of progressive development of the regime concerned .......................... 351 4. The question of the addressee (objective regimes/erga omnes). . 352 5. Bridging legally binding and non-legally binding norms ..... 356 6. The status of soft law within the international normative order . 359 D. Reconsidering the legitimacy of the international normative order . . 361 1. Is consent still the prevailing basis for the legitimacy of the international normative order? .. 361 2. The question of upholding consent/acquiescence over time.... 362 3. Scientific advice/input as a means to generate and uphold consent or acquiescence ..................363 4. Ethical/moral considerations as an additional element for the legitimisation of international norms? ............... 364 E. Concluding observations ........................ 366 F. Particularities of solidarity-based regimes ............... 367 Chapter 7. Compliance and compliance control concerning international regimes serving community interests and/or being guided by the principle of solidarity ................................. 370 A. Compliance control and ensuring compliance: Some general introductory remarks................ 370 B. Monitoring compliance through verification mechanisms: Inspection and self-control ........... 373 C. Reporting systems ........................... 379 Part III. Ensuring compliance with and enforcement of international commitments of regimes serving community interests and/or the principle of solidarity .................................. 369 Chapter 8. Enforcing compliance by confrontational means ........ 386 A. In general ................................ 386 B. Withdrawal of privileges of membership ............... 387 C. Enforcing compliance with environmental standards through trade restrictions........................388 1. In general .............................. 388 2. Treaties providing for the possibility to use trade restrictions as a means of enforcement ........ 388 3. Unilateral trade measures to enforce international or national environmental standards for whose benefit? ............ 390 4. Compatibility of trade restrictions with international law, in particular international trade law 391 D. Responsibility and liability ....................... 393 1. In general .............................. 393 2. Responsibility for harm to private property or to individuals: The first steps in the evolution of a regime on environmental liability 396 3. The subsequent evolutionary step: Environmental liability in the context of shared resources. 400 Structural similarities between the responsibility/liability regimes for outer space, Antarctica and the deep seabed: Do they reflect community interests? ........................ 405 5. Responsibilities and liability in response to violations of international human rights ................ 407 6. The role of international institutions in respect of ensuring compliance ................................ 409 7. The possibility of States to individually invoke non-compliance with international environment and human rights regimes .... 411 Chapter 9. Enforcement by non-confrontational means ........... 416 A. Introductory remarks .......................... 416 B. Incentive-based measures for the inducement of compliance ..... 416 C. Compliance assistance ......................... 418 1. Introduction ............................. 418 2. Compliance assistance through procedural means......... 418 3. Capacity building through the establishment of new financial institutions.............................. 422