In Intellectual Life in the Ḥijāz before Wahhabism, Naser Dumairieh argues that, as a result of changing global conditions facilitating the movement of scholars and texts, the seventeenth-century Ḥijāz was one of the most important intellectual centers of the Islamic world, acting as a hub between its different parts.
Positioning Ibrāhīm al-Kūrānī (d. 1101/1690) as representative of the intellectual activities of the pre-Wahhabism Ḥijāz, Dumairieh argues that his coherent philosophical system represents a synthesis of several major post-classical traditions of Islamic thought, namely kalām and Akbarian appropriations of Avicennian metaphysics. Al-Kūrānī’s work is the culmination of the philosophized Akbarian tradition; with his reconciliation of Ibn ʿArabī’s ideas with Ashʿarī theology, Ibn ʿArabī’s ideas became Islamic theology.
Naser Dumairieh, Ph.D. (2018) McGill University, is a researcher in post-classical Islamic philosophy and the relationship between Sufism and theology. He has published critical editions and articles related to the intellectual history of the pre-Wahhabism Ḥijāz, including a critical edition of al-Barzanjī’s al-Jādhib al-ghaybī, and another book entitled Sufism in the Ḥijāz before Wahhabism is in progress.
Introduction: When All Roads Led to the Ḥijāz
1 The Seventeenth-Century Ḥijāz in Its Global and Local Context 1 The Seventeenth-Century Ḥijāz in its Global Context 2 The Seventeenth-Century Ḥijāz in its Local Context 3 Conclusion
2 Intellectual Life in the Ḥijāz in the Seventeenth Century 1 Educational Institutions in the Ḥijāz in the Seventeenth Century 2 Rational Sciences in the Ḥijāz 3 Isnād as a Source for Intellectual Life in the Seventeenth-Century Ḥijāz 4 How the Rational Sciences Reached the Ḥijāz 5 Conclusion
3 Ibrāhīm al-Kūrānī’s Life, Education, Teachers, and Students 1 Al-Kūrānī’s Life 2 Al-Kūrānī’s Education 3 Al-Kūrānī’s Teachers 4 Al-Kūrānī’s Contacts with Other Scholars of His Time 5 Al-Kūrānī’s Students 6 Al-Kūrānī’s Affiliation to Sufi Orders 7 Conclusion
4 Al-Kūrānī’s Works 1 Al-Kūrānī’s Works (Examined) 2 Al-Kūrānī’s Works (Inaccessible) 3 Works Misattributed to al-Kūrānī 4 Conclusion
5 Al-Kūrānī’s Metaphysical and Cosmological Thought 1 God is Absolute Existence (al-wujūd al-muṭlaq or al-wujūd al-maḥḍ) 2 God’s Attributes and Allegorical Interpretation (taʾwīl) 3 God’s Manifestations in Sensible and Conceivable Forms 4 Nafs al-amr in al-Kūrānī’s Thought 5 Ashʿarites and Mental Existence 6 Realities: Uncreated Nonexistent Quiddities 7 God’s Knowledge of Particulars 8 Creation 9 Unity and Multiplicity 10 Destiny and Predetermination 11 Kasb: Free Will and Predestination 12 The Unity of the Attributes (waḥdat al-ṣifāt) 13 Waḥdat al-Wujūd 14 Conclusion
6 Al-Kūrānī’s Other Theological and Sufi Thought 1 The Faith of Pharaoh 2 The Precedence of God’s Mercy and the Vanishing of the Hellfire (fanāʾ al-nār) 3 Satanic Verses 4 Preference for the Reality of the Kaʿba or for the Muḥammadan Reality 5 God’s Speech (kalām Allāh) 6 Conclusion
Appendix 1: Al-Kūrānī’s Teachers, Additional to Those Mentioned in the Text Appendix 2: Al-Kūrānī’s Students, Additional to Those Mentioned in the Text Appendix 3: Al-Kūrānī’s Works Ordered Alphabetically Bibliography Index
All interested in post-classical Islamic thought, the relationship of Islamic theology and Sufism, Ibn ʿArabī, the study of the Wahhabi movement, and the history of the Ḥijāz and the Ottoman era.