A Theory of Universal Democracy

Beyond the End of History


Democracy is often associated with Western liberal values, such as free markets, individual rights and secularism. Some scholars assert that liberal democracy is the end of history. Disputing such claims, this work presents the concept of Universal Democracy to think beyond the values of Western democracy. A Theory of Universal Democracy empowers cultures and communities across the world to custom design democracy in consonance with their traditional values. For example, the book makes concrete proposals for Muslim countries to democratize their constitutions without accepting Western values and without violating the principles of Islamic law. More importantly, Universal Democracy further develops the idea of Free State, which the author first presented in his previous book, The Extinction of Nation-States. The proposed fusion of Universal Democracy and Free State is designed to revolutionize the classical theory of government and to offer a new paradigm that accommodates both universality and uniqueness.


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Table of contents

Preface. Introduction. Part I: Foundation of Free State. 1: Beyond Liberal Democracy. 1.1. Dynamics of Private Property. 1.2. Separation of Powers. 1.3. Separation of Religion and State. 2: Beyond Political Monopolies. 2.1. Introduction to Political Monopolies. 2.2. Personal Monopolies. 2.3. Ideological Monopolies. 3: Universal Values. 3.1. State of Consensus. 3.2. State of Diversity. 3.3. State of Conflict. 4: Free State Constitutionss. 4.1. Seven Layers of Authority. 4.2. Constitutional Rooting. Part II: Full and Free Competition. 5: Framework of Party Competition. 5.1. Freedom of Association. 5.2. Political Transparency. 5.3. Dynamics of Political Competition. 5.4. Political Funds. 6: Right to Platform. 6.1. Contractarian Politics. 6.2. Archetypes of Party Platforms. 6.3. Dissemination of Party Platforms. 7: Right to Recall. 7.1. Analytical Structure of Recall. 7.2. One Man, One Vote, One Time. 8: Future Revolutions. 8.1. Dismantling Political Monopolies. 8.2. Restoring Universal Democracy. Index.


Scholars, teachers and students of international law, constitutional law, legal theory, and Islamic law will find this book a source of valuable ideas.